A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF CHALLENGES OF URBAN AREAS FACING FLOOD RISKS

Flood Risks


INTRODUCTION

Hurricane Sandy has delivered another painful reminder that urban areas need to find new ways to confront the increasingly difficult task of flood preparation. A flood occurs “when water runoff from the land exceeds the capacity of the stream channel.”Flood Risks Excepting the Inner Mountain West and Southern California, a map of vulnerable flood areas picks up almost all major urban areas in the United States.Flood Risks Between 1929 and 2003, urban floods in the United States caused an estimated $171 billion in property damage.Flood Risks Floods have caused the most losses of any natural disaster in the United States.5 Billions of dollars have been invested in flood prevention structures. But, as “first responders” in the battle to prevent and respond to flood damage, local governments will see urban flood damages rise for four primary reasons. First, federal flood control policy over eighty years has created the illusion that infrastructure and post-disaster relief can provide maximum protection from flood damages. Second, more cost-effective avoidance strategies, such asless intensive flood plain development and restoration, have been undermined by the federal flood insurance program, which has encouraged intense development in river and coastal flood plains instead of redirecting it to less vulnerable areas. Third, global climate change is projected to produce more intense flood and coastal storm surge events. Fourth, damage prevention responsibility is being de facto devolved to local governments as the federal government and the states, with notable exceptions, are investing less of the scant, available dollars in flood infrastructure construction.Flood Risks

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Cover Page – – – – – – – – – –
Title Page – – – – – – – – – –
Certification – – – – – – – – – –
Dedication – – – – – – – – – –
Acknowledgement – – – – – – – – –
Abstract – – – – – – – – – –
Table of Content – – – – – – – – –
Chapter One: Introduction
Background of the Study – – – – – –
Statement of the Problem – – – – – –
Objectives of the Study – – – – – – –
Research Questions – – – – – – –
Research Hypotheses – – – – – – –
Significance of the Study – – – – – – –
Scope/ Limitation of the Study – – – – – –
Definition of Terms – – – – – – –
Chapter Two: Review of Related Literature
2.1 Introduction – – – – – – – – –
2.2 Conceptual Framework – – – – – – –
2.3 Theoretical Framework – – – – – – –
2.4 Empirical Review – – – – – – – –

Chapter Three: Research Methodology
3.1 Introduction – – – – – – – –
3.1 Research Design – – – – – – – –
3.3 Area of the Study – – – – – – – –
3.4 Population of the Study – – – – – – –
3.5 Sample Size and Sampling Techniques – – – –
3.6 Instrumentation – – – – – – – –
3.7 Validation of the Instrument – – – – – –
3.8 Administration of the Instrument – – – – –
3.9 Method of Data Analysis – – – – – – –

Chapter Four: Presentation, Analysis and Interpretation of Data
4.1 Introduction – – – – – – – – –
4.2 Presentation and Analysis of Data – – – – –
4.3 Testing of Hypotheses – – – – – – –
4.4 Discussion of Findings – – – – – – –
Chapter Five: Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations
5.1 Introduction – – – – – – – – –
5.2 Summary – – – – – – – – –
5.3 Conclusion – – – – – – – – –