Abstract

The paper discussed the causes, the suitability of health education in the  control of communicable disease spread in Nigeria  industrial diseases among pre-school age children (1-5 years). It focuses on the pre-school age children because of the existence of six killer diseases and the peculiarity of children’s level of exposure to communicable diseases especially during the outdoor game. Recommendations were made on management and control of communicable diseases. These include public enlightenment, proper hygiene of food, the environment and the general body.

CHAPTER ONE

Back Ground of the study

School health services are those services provided in schools by health educator; nurses, physicians; dentist and other health related workers like guidance counselors and social workers to health appraise, promote and protect the health of pupils and that of the personnel.

Johnson (1991) observed that school health services are procedures established to: appraise the health status of pupils and school personnel, counsel pupils, parents and others concerning appraisal findings, carryout follow-up services, provide emergency care for injury or sudden illness,help prevent and control communicable diseases and encourage the correction of remedial defects.

School health services are designed to determine the physical and emotional status of pupils, to prevent diseases and to secure the cooperation of parents and pupils, for correcting defects and maintenance of health (Mshelia, 1999), in contributing to the concept of school health services, Akinbile (1998) stated that school health services contribute to those school activities directly concerned with the present health status of the school child. Nwana (1988) regretted that what is referred to as school health services in Nigeria may be described as a farce while Kane (1997) noted that although special clinics were established for the welfare of pre-school children, the same cannot be said of the health of school children. Negligence of the school health services can be attributed to the unfounded assumption by Nigerians that once a Nigerian child attains school age

be becomes immune to diseases. In Nigeria, Abiodum (1996) conducted a survey of 500 pupils aged between five and fifteen years in a small rural community and seventy five percent (75%) were found to suffer from mental morbidity, disturbances of emotional and conduct disorder constituted sixty seven percent (67%) of the total morbidity rate detected which made him to emphasize the need for a more functional school health services. The most basic functional aspect of school health services is the health appraisal of pupils. According to Freeman (1999), health appraisal involves the continuous and close observation of the school child and the teacher, while Turner, Bandall and Smith (1990) viewed health appraisal of

pupils’ health as a means that ensures, professional advice to pupils and their families on personal health as well as advice to the school on the adaptation of the school programme to the needs of pupils. Health appraisal should include dental inspection, screening tests for vision, hearing and speech, medical examination, health history and teacher’s observations.

According to Tahir (1997), the population of Nomads in Nigeria is 9.3 million and that, out of the estimated population of 9.3 million nomadic people in Nigeria, 3.1 million are children of school age. In the view of Mshelia (1999), these nomadic children of school age do not enjoy good health for a long period of time because of the prevalence of numerous communicable disease, they suffer from multiple infestations and infections. Consequently, the morbidity rate is high among them and the major causes according to him are communicable diseases resulting from poor environmental conditions. Malnutrition, injuries and lack of general health supervision were also implicated in the high morbidity rate. Mshelia (1999) further stated that if school health programmes in nomadic primary schools were vigorously pursued, the incidence of high morbidity rate among school pupils would have been minimized to the barest minimum.

From the foregoing, the present study is designed to evaluate the school health programme in nomadic primary schools in Southwestern Nigeria.

1.1 Statement of the Problem

The health of primary school pupils is a matter of universal concern as children are the most precious assets any nation can have as their well-being reflects the future of the nation. The school age is a period in which the child undergoes rapid physical and mental development and this calls for a functional school health programme if the overall development of the child is to be achieved. Experts have revealed that nomadic primary school pupils at various times have suffered from communicable diseases, infections, injuries leading to death as a result of tetanus infection, dental

caries, rashes, ill equipped first aid boxes for emergency care, reported cases of epidemics resulting from poor environmental conditions. Nomadic school pupils have not shown a high level of positive healthful practices and attitudes, which school health service is aimed to achieve.

ISSN Mshelia (1999) asserted that the life expectancy of nomadic children is low due to high death rates, as they do not enjoy good health for a long period of time because of the prevalence of numerous communicable diseases. But if school health programmes in nomadic primary schools are

adequately provided for and vigorously pursued, absenteeism in schools as well as high morbidity rates among pupils of nomadic primary schools would be minimized if not completely eradicated. However, from the foregoing, this study is set to evaluate the school health services in nomadic primary schools in Southwestern Nigeria.

1.2 Objectives of the study

To create an environment in which countries and their international and national partners are better equipped, both technically and institutionally, to reduce morbidity death and disability through the control, eradication or elimination of these diseases as appropriate.

To upgrade health education in Nigeria

1.3 Significance of the Study

Since the establishment of the National Commission for Nomadic Education, available records show that the school health services component of the organization programme of activities has not been evaluated. It is envisaged therefore, that the outcome of this study will bring to light areas in the school health services in nomadic primary schools in Southwestern Nigeria that need intervention from the stakeholders (Federal, State, Local Government and Nomadic Communities) to improve on areas where there are lapses for a better school health services.

The outcome of the study would also serve as a source of reference material to people who may be interested in similar areas of study in future.

1.4Research Hypotheses

The following hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance:

  1. Health appraisal is not significantly available for pupils in nomadic primary schools in

Southwestern Nigeria.

  1. Health guidance and counseling is not significantly available for pupils in nomadic

primary schools in Southwestern Nigeria.

  1. Follow-up services are not significantly available for pupils in nomadic primary schools

in Southwestern Nigeria.

  1. Emergency care and first aid is not significantly available for pupils in nomadic primary

schools in Southwestern Nigeria.

  1. Control of communicable diseases is not significantly carried out in nomadic primary

schools in Southwestern Nigeria

1.5 RESEARCH QUESTIONS

  1. Does good health in Nigeria lead to effective crisis management in Owerri West.
  2. Is it proper to invite a third party in setting crisis in Owerri West.
  3. What are the roles of staff motivation towards crisis management



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