THE ROLE OF INTERNATIONAL AGENCIES IN INCREASING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION IN NIGERIA
Considering the abundant agro-opportunities around the country, Nigeria has no justifiable reasons to constitute part of the over one billion people currently facing danger of hunger across the world due to lack of increase in agricultural production. It has been noted that one of the reasons for the establishment of Enugu State commercial Agricultural Development project is to assist the medium and small scale farmers to increase agricultural production in the state and Nation as well. The research is an empirical research work carried out scientifically by the use of statistical data form questionnaire administered to a well. Informed staff of Enugu state. Commercial Agricultural Development project and some of the farmers that benefited from the programme. The methodology used a widely accepted statistical tool I form of primary data, from questionnaires and personal interviews with the target group. The data collected for the research work was collected, presented and analyzed using percentages and obsolete values. The finding of the research reveals that the scheme or project has really helped a lot of farmers in Enugu state given them grant and other moral supports. Therefore, it can affirmatively be concluded that lack food security is endemic to the growth and development of our economy. Also recommendations were proffered on the way forward for the growth of our economy and the nation at large.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Agriculture has been the backbone of the economy in Nigeria, providing employment and source of livelihood for the increasing population. It accounted for the half of the Gross Domestic product (GDP) of the Nigeria economy at independence in 1960 (Balogun, 2000: Olagunju, 2004).
However, the role it plays in the Nigeria and economic development of the country has diminished over the years due to the dominant role of crude oil sector in the economy and in the Gross Domestic product aggregate share. In spite of this, the sector accounts for about 40 percent of GDP and provides employment, both formal and informal for about 60 percent of Nigerians 144 million people (Digbokar, 2001, Onyeahialam, 2002, Dagunju 2007, National Agricultural economy and policy Report; 2009, Odoemation, 2011).
To full revitalize agricultural production in Nigeria, the federal government established series of agricultural policies. These policies include the National Accelerated food production programme: Operation feed the Nation; Agricultural credit Government scheme; River Basin Development Authorities; the Green Revolution; National Agricultural Land Development Authority (Aigboxar, 2001, Akande, 2006). The World Bank assisted Agricultural project (ADPs) was also launched in 1972 (Balogun 2000, Okeke 2000) to improve the traditional system of production and raise the productivity, income and standard of living of small scale farmers who provide over 60 percent of Gross Domestic food supplies (Olayemi, 1980, Ayichi, 1995). The success of the pilot schemes launched in Northern Nigeria in the enclave areas of Funntu, Guzan and Gombe led to the expansion nationwide in 1984 (fasoranti, 2006, auta and Dafinang, 2010).
Commercial Agricultural Development project (CADP) is the federal Government of Nigeria initiative to diversity into non-oil source of economic growth very over dependence on oil and gas sector.
The project is carried at improving Agricultural production in Nigeria by supporting the commercialization of Agricultural production, processing and marketing output among small and medium scale commercial farmers and agro-processors.
To achieve the desired objectives, the project is targeted at improving access of participating commercial farmers to new technologies, improved infrastructures, finance, output markets, strengthening agro-access to market for some targeted value chairs among the commercial farmers five states “Cross River, Kaduna, Kano and Lagos States are participating in this pilot phase of the project. The value charis being promoted in Enugu are poultry, fruit trees and maize as staple crops.
It is expected that socio-economic development of the people should reflect the amount of resource being spent to improve the well being of the people, so the project is focused on the extent the World Bank assisted project have actually helped to enhance socio-economic development of the people of the state in general.
Every year, the world Bank through its agencies initiates and implements programmes and projects that are aimed at ameliorating the problems of the people of the state. These project, are intended to contribute to socio-economic development of the state. These are packaged to enhance the goodness. The project are people oriented, at is therefore imperative to examine the role of their projects from the world vis-a-vis socio-economic development of the state. Are the World Bank projects really assisting the state in her socio-economic development effort?
What is the role of the World Bank project towards socio-economic development effort of the state?
It has been observed that the World Bank project in many countries is geared towards improving the well being of the people. It is intended so the case of Enugu State not be an exception.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEMS
The following are problems/challenges that research work seeks to address:
– Most of all the aids from the international agencies, in most cases don’t get to the farmers,
– International agencies do not know the basic needs of the Nigeria formers, Therefore, The direct needs of the farmers are not addressed in most cases of their intervention (foreign intervention)
– Issues that bothers on corruption are making it difficult for the international agencies to make the desired impact in Nigerian Agricultural sector.
– Illiteracy and Ignorance on the side of the farmers are making it very difficult for adoption of modern farming practices to have the desired effect in Nigeria Agricultural sector.
– Most of the farm inputs are obsolete and out dated, in regards to achieving the desired improvement in the Agricultural sector.
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The main objective of this study is to determine the extent of the role of international Agencies in increasing Agricultural production in Nigeria. Analysis of World Bank Assisted project in Enugu State (A case study of commercial Agricultural Development project CADP).
The specific objective deals with the purpose of research work, these objectives include:
1. To study the socio-economic characteristics of beneficiaries of commercial Agricultural Development programmes.
2. To ascertain conditions leading to commercial Agricultural Development programmes approving grant for farmers.
3. To find out the level of counterpart funding compliance from commercial Agricultural Development programmes beneficiaries.
4. To ascertain the level of synergy which exist between the donor, ie World Bank, federal government and Enugu State Government.
5. To ascertain the number of beneficiaries of the scheme or project since inception.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
These research questions are developed for the purpose of getting information for this study.
1. What are the socio-economic Characteristics of beneficiaries of Commercial Agricultural Development programmes?
2. What are the procedures to be a beneficiary of Enugu state commercial Agricultural Development scheme or project grant?
3. How many Kilometer (KM) of roads have Enugu State commercial Agricultural Development programme constructed?
4. How many people have Enugu state commercial Agricultural Development programme or project helped with grant?
5. Which area have Enugu commercial Agricultural project or scheme offered grant?.
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This research work is significant in the following ways: It will be of help to government. It will greatly help the policy makers of Agriculture to formulate efficient policy. It will also be of help to students undergoing research on similar topic.
In project will also be of importance to the general public to know the extent of the role played by the international agencies in increasing agricultural production in Nigeria. It will also help to increase the knowledge of the researcher.
This research work will also help farmers with the needed information on how they can access aids (financial aids) to improve their project, the international agencies will better informed on what the needs of the farmers are as-well-as enable them channel their resources to such areas.
1.6 SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
The scope of the work is within Enugu state all the communities in this state. Each community has one peculiar and pressing socio-economic problem or the other and this necessitated the sitting of the project.
Therefore, to reflect the needs of the community in particular, and in some cases, a project is sited to serve many communities irrespective of the location.
It must be noted that a lot of factors actually constrained the in-depthness of the work factor like time, finance and poor responses from the rural communities.
As the researcher had to visit several rural areas to verity conditions of some of the project sited there. It was not easy for some respondents to answer very simple questions regarding the project located in their communities for fear of political victimization.
Most of the time of the researcher was spent in repetitions visit to respondents which really affected the financial strength of the researcher as a student. even in and semi-urban areas of the state, where the researcher thought the community leaders would willingly respond to the question, was not easy as earlier envisaged. The community leaders like the traditional rulers were not forth coming to either critically elaborate the state of project sited in their community because most of them (infact all the Igwes are paid by the government). So, he who plays the piper dictates the time.
1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS
The following terms are defined for easy understanding of the background of the project.
THE WORLD BANK
The World Bank is and international financial institution that provides loan to developing countries for capital programmes.
The World Bank’s official goal is the reduction of poverty.
It Include improvement in the welfare of citizens, eradication of poverty, elimination of inequalities, income distribution, providing access to basic needs such as shelter, food, clothing, health and education, creation of employment opportunities and popular participation in information and implementation of policies, programme in a given society.
This means having to do with more than one nation. Also, it is an integration between or among nations, pertaining to the intercourse of ration participated in by two or more nations.
Production means the act of producing, meaning or creating something. It is also the act of bringing something forward for use or consideration.
Agriculture is the act of science of cultivating the ground, including the harvesting of crops and the rearing and management of livestock, tillage, husbandry etc.
COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE SCHEME
It is a body constituted by the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN), World Bank and Federal Government to look into Agricultural and help in boosting Agricultural faculties and also motivate farmers.