THE TELEVISION INFLUENCE ON YOUTH EDUCATION ABOUT HIV AIDS IN ENUGU METROPOLIS


CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

1.1       BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

The Television as has been established can provide for audience members “Definition of situation” on variety of issues. Television portrays a reflection of the real society.  By the presence of television, the nature of societal communication norms have been altered thereby making the large audience expect the television to provide a continuous flow of news, entertainment, political commentary and other form or information. People depend on television for various form of gratification.Television Influence

Bernard Berelson (1950) public opinion quarterly Pg 889-898, Even in an underdeveloped society, the people get quickly developed since mass communication habits becomes available to them in the form they understand even people in the remote area become aware of events outside their immediate environment.Television Influence

People according to Walter Lippman (1964) act upon the basis of the pictures in their head” rather than the reality of the world at large. We have learned through research that the images and words that television carry determines within the limitation posed by intervening factors, Opinion of the people and their actions.Television Influence

It is believed that in the imperfect world, there is no single antidote to human ills but publicity is often a vital means to finding the cure to many social ills. It is believed that extensive influence of television and true information on HIV/AIDS education will perhaps touch on the sexual habits of the people. When a disease is sexually transmitted, the possibility and effort to eradicate it proves abortive. HIV/AIDS is the worst disease to human race since the black plague of the 14thcentury.Television Influence

HISTORICAL ASPECT OF HIV/AIDS

The virus disease HIV/AIDS is relatively new arrival in Nigeria compared to other countries of the world where it exist. According to WHO Global 1988 AIDS/incidence inventory. The number of reported case of AIDS was in Nigeria than other countries of the world.Television Influence

Dr Olukoye Ransome-Kiti, Then the minister of health, “Even if we are able to prevent further transmission of the virus, we will expect about 69,000 adult and 39,000 pediatrics AIDS cases between 1991 and 1999. By the year 2003, about 2.6 million Nigerians have proved HIV positive. The truth is that about 100 people get infected per week in Nigeria. Vanguard Newspaper, January 8, 2010.Television Influence

1.2       STATEMENT OF RESEARCH PROBLEM

The influence of television in any society cannot be over emphasized. It goes beyond ordinary art and science of news gathering and dissemination of opinion and attitude of the people via proper and accurate analysis and interpretation of news events. Through their information education and socialization function.

The television set agenda for public discussion by chronicling news event within the society. Television in no doubt have changed our culture, New products are advertised to millions of people via this channel of communication can achieve wide spread adoption almost overnight.Television Influence

T.V is effective in different ways. It creates awareness while the face to face communication brings about change. Both are complimentary but Eugle and others observed that when the audience is large, it is necessary to accept the inefficiencies of mass communication.Television Influence

(Macqurire 1969) observed that the measured influence of the television as regards persuasiveness seems quite slight. In view of this study, it therefore become very necessary to take a hard look on the influence of television education about HIV/AIDS VIS-AVIS their effect among the youths in Enugu metropolis. However, the research is a systematic search of knowledge, the medium of which a primarity to find the solutions to existing problem (s). Proper identifications of the problem determine the directions of the study. Therefore, the problem this research work aim at solving are:

i.             To determine the major source of information regarding HIV/AIDS.

ii.            The effect of exposure to HIV/AIDS education among youths in Enugu metropolis.

1.3       OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

The primary aim of this study is to examine the extent to which television education about HIV/AIDS has affected and influenced attitudes and behavioral change towards sex. Influence here is regarded as the ability of the education about HIV/AIDS messages carried by the television to induce the youths to change their behaviours towards sexual promiscuity and also help them know more about the disease and suggest preventive messages.

This study will also help to know how many of the youths are exposed to NTA programmes about HIV/AIDS.

To also know if the youths really get the message.Television Influence

Has their level of education got something to do with their behavior and attitude towards sexual matters.

1.4       SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

It is envisaged that the outcome of the study will help to alert the youth audience on the danger involved with HIV/AIDS and equally contribute to the existing literature in the area of the television programmes. NTA Enugu to be précised.Television Influence

1.5       RESEARCH QUESTIONS

1.   Do people (the youth) in Enugu metropolis get most information about HIV/AIDS through NTA Enugu?

2.   Does education about HIV/AIDS relate to the use of condom during sexual inter course?

3.   Does education about HIV/AIDS discourage the youth from sexual activities?

4.   Do youth expose themselves?

1.6       RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS

Ho: Do NTA Enugu carry information about HIV/AIDS?

H1: NTA Enugu do not carry information about HIV/AIDA.

Ho: Does education about HIV/AIDS on NTA Enugu relate to the use of condom during sexual intercourse?

H2: Education about HIV/AIDS on NTA Enugu does not relate to the use of condom.

H0: Does HIV/AIDS education programme have any effect on the youth.

H3: HIV/AIDS education programme does not have any effect on the youth.

Ho: Do television programme expose the youth to sexual activities?

H4: Television programme do not expose the youth to sexual activities.

1.7       THEORITICAL FRAMEWORK

The authors (1927:77) argued that television set the agenda for public awareness, enlightenment and information dissemination, influencing the salience of attitude towards topical and contemporary issues.

Agenda setting implies that television pre determine what issues that are important at a particular time depending on the issue, television influence can be smaller or greater, whereby the rule of tumb is the smaller, the primary experience of recipients, the greater the television creates their own image of reality.Television Influence

Quite obviously television create their own image of reality. Exposure to television messages does not always take place directly, member of the public can often receive television messages indirectly and second hand through a process described as the two step flow of communication. In this process a few people who are active in seeking out information from the masses receive such information directly from the television and pass on the television messages through a rely process to other members of the population. The renowned media researchers Paul Lazarfeld (1941) called the few active members “ opinion leaders”. He said that idea often flow from television to opinion leaders and from these to less active section of the population. It therefore means that those who cannot be reached by television could benefit from interpersonal flow of information.Television Influence

Schramm (1948) also believe that other channels of communication part from television can be categorized under interpersonal communication and these two reinforce one another.Television Influence

This study is subjected to a theory known as magic Bullet or Hypodermic Needle theory. This theory is also called the powerful effect theory because of the enormous and unlimited powers the media has over the audience.

The media is held to be supremely effective, mind controlling agents and assumed that all human beings respond inescapably and uniformly to the powerful stimuli from the media.Television Influence

The magic bullet theory suggests direct and uniform influence of the mass media on an audience by “Shooting or injecting it with the appropriate messages desired to trigger a desired response.Television Influence

1.8       SCOPE OF THE STUDY

HIV/AIDS is a sexually transmitted disease which is about 20 years in Nigeria has spread through due to lack of vaccine for one. HIV/AIDS virus affects a cell in the brain and cause what is known as dementia or brain disease. (Van Limpe (1987) the World Health Organization (WHO) has taken the bull by the horn by making an attempt on how to control the spread of this ugly disease. HIV/AIDS appeared to be disease affecting mainly the homosexuals have become a scourge affecting people of every race and tribe.Television Influence

International news release from the continuous of the world reported that HIV/AIDS is spreading like wide fire. Countries report like Austrialia, America, and switzarland the soveriety of this disease.

(Dr James Curran, 1995).

1.9       DEFINITION OF TERMS

CONCEPTUAL DEFINITION

Television- Telecast sent out in all directions which comprises of audio and visual means of communication.

Influence -: Effect of programme on the audience.

Youth Education-Enlightenment of young men and women who are within the age of 18-45 yrs.

Enugu metropolis-Organized political community within the apparatus of Enugu government

OPERATIONAL DEFINITION

Television-Electronic media that disseminate information on Education and other programmes.

Influence -: Effect of programme on its audience.

Youth Education-informing of young men and woman within  the age of 18-45 yrs.

Enugu metropolis-Organized political economical and social area of Enugu state.