FACTORS MILITATING AGAINST EFFECTIVE TEACHING AND LEARNING OF ECONOMICS IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS
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1.1 Background of the Study
Economicsi is one of the subjects in post primary school. It is an important subject taught in the secondary schools. Economicsi is important both to students and the society at large because it cuts across all spheres of human endeavour, as it can be seen in its simpler definition by Professor Lord Robbins (1932).
Economicsi is associated with scarcity and choice. Robbins defined economics as “a science that studies human behaviour as a relationship between ends and scarce means which have alternative uses”. The above definition is widely accepted by the generality of Economicsi because it embodies the basic concepts of Economics and the main fundamental problems of Man-Wants, scarcity, choice, exchange and opportunity cost.
Economics according to Hornby (1973) is the study of production and distribution of money and goods of a country. It is the study of how people of a society choose to use their limited resources like land, capital, labour, goods and technical knowledge to provide various goods and services for the consumption of the people in the society.
Pigou (1972) believe that economics makes it easier to institute practical measures to promote welfare, so that the society may build upon the work of Economists. He concluded by saying that the study is not worthwhile for its own sake but only for the healing that the knowledge may help to bring. Economics is relevant to the field of science and art. It enable the individuals to think in the sense that he/she is able to apply its principles to solve practical problems and avoid unnecessary costly mistakes, it enables the individual to understand better the relationship between himself and his fellow human beings in his effort to make a living. From another view, economics education may prepare one for a career.
Notwithstanding, it has been observed that there are many problems militating against the teaching and learning of economics in Post primary schools as enumerated by many writers on problem of economics in Nigeria. They attributed the high level of failures in economics to lack of students concentration in the classroom, their view steamed from observed students performance in economics.
Thus, observed failure could be as a result of inability of the students to understand economic terms, lack of finance to buy relevant textbooks, inadequate teachers, inability of the students’ to interpret economics table and graph, inappropriate and ineffective method of teaching, lack of control over the attitudes of students and teachers and others which have contributed to low level of teaching economics in secondary schools.
Okorie (1979: 152) suggested that for the effective teaching to take place, the skillful teacher needs to use the many effective method and techniques effectively because in them his success and failure depends. He further emphasized that the success in the use of methods depends on the intelligent analysis of educational purposes, pupil in the class and the curriculum content of the moment.
A few moment reflection is sufficient to reveal that every society faces crucial issues and problem in education which have very serious economic angles that cannot be overlooked easily for instance, the production of education as well as the acquisition of education both require the use of large qualities of scare resources (Production of education requires conducive classrooms, administrative blocks, personnel, librarians, laboratories while the acquisition of education requires expenditures on tuition fees, book, travels, uniform, lodging etc. and students time.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Economics is been taught in secondary schools in Eti-Osa Local Government Area of Lagos State and it has been observed that students in government secondary school Ajah performed poorly in the 2012 May/June Senior Certificate Examination. It has also been observed that there are lots of factors militating against the effective teaching and learning of economicsi in secondary schools in the study area.
poor performance in Secondary School Certificate Examination (WAEC) is caused by many factors such as; students ineffective study techniques, quality of teachers and method of teaching, the parents inability to provide useful materials like textbooks, exercise books and school fees and problem of inadequate instructional materials for teaching and learning of Economics in schools.
However, the pivoting problems of economicsi is complex and can minimally be solved if the teachers and students change their attitude towards teaching and learning in schools generally and to economicsi in particular.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
Study has been undertaken with a view to identify the problems involved in the teaching and learning of economicsi in secondary schools and Eti-Osa Local Government Area and factors responsible for these problems. Specifically, the study sought to find out if:-
- Insufficient numbers of qualified teachers affects academic Performance of students in the study of Economicsi.
- Unavailability of instructional materials on the teaching of Economics in secondary schools.
iii. The challenges faced in the teaching of Economics in Secondary Schools.
- The conditions of working environment affect the teaching of economicsi in secondary schools.
1.4 Research Questions
The following research questions guided this research work:
- Does insufficient numbers of qualified teachers affects academic Performance of students in the study of Economics?
- Does unavailability of instructional materials affect teaching of economicsi in secondary schools?
iii. What are the challenges faced in the teaching of Economicsi in Secondary Schools?
- How would the conditions of working environment affect the teaching of economicsi in secondary schools?
1.5 Research Hypotheses
The following hypotheses were developed for the study:
- HO: There is no significant relationship between unavailability of instructional material and effective teaching of economics in secondary schools.
H1: There is significant relationship between instructional material and effective teaching of economics in secondary schools.
- HO: There is no significant relationship between conditions of working environment and teaching of economics in secondary schools.
H1: There is significant relationship between the conditions of working environment and teaching of economics in secondary schools.
- HO: There is no significant relationship between insufficient numbers of qualified teachers and academic performance of students in the study of Economics
.H1: There is significant relationship between insufficient numbers of qualified teachers and academic performance of students in the study of Economics
1.6 Scope of the Study
The research work seeks to examine the factors militating against effective teaching and learning of economics in secondary. The study will be limited to five selected schools in Eti-Osa Local Government Area, Lagos.
1.7 Significance of the Study
There is need to apply knowledge from economicsi to many area of our life in other to benefit the society. The achievements of the objective necessitates an understanding of the basic teaching of economics. We cannot attain national objectives in the light of poor or average performances in examinations and lack of application of economics to life students.
Without doubt, improved teaching and learning of economicsi will spur us into greater heights. This study will help to make our educational administrators to see the need to have qualified economics teachers to handle the subject effectively for the benefit of the students and society at large.
This study will help to sensitize the educational administrators to appreciate the need to make available the necessary materials, example, chalkboard, graphs, audio-visual materials etc. that will enhance effective learning of economics if they are not available.
This study will if need be direct the economicsi teachers’ attention to the need for them to adopt more appropriate teaching method in order to bring about the above mentioned desirable experience in the learners. This study will have a great significance because it is going to provide information to economics teachers for formation and evaluation of their plans.
It will be useful to learners for through this, they will be able to identify the factors militating against the proper teaching and learning of economicsi. This study will help to produce sound economics students that will function very well in the economy such as:
(a) Knowing how to use scarce productive resources with alternative uses to meet prescribed ends and be able to apply the principles of economicsi.
(b) The product of economics that should be able to pick employment within a limited employment opportunity in any economy.
This work will serve as a source of encouragement to students and teachers that will come across it. It is hoped that the findings of this study would also form the basis for further research work by future researchers on this issue.