THE SOCIAL CULTURAL FACTORS AFFECTING THE USE OF FAMILY PLANNING: A CASE STUDY OF OREDO LOCAL GOVERNMENT
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The social-cultural factors affecting the use of family planning in Oredo Local Government Area of Edo State, the objective or aim of this study is to proffer solution to those social-cultural factors that is still affecting the use of family planning in Oredo Local Government Area of Edo State. One of such is the norms that are the rules that determine what should or should not be done. The researcher saw that Oredo Local Government does not have a norm that promotes the use of family planning. The populations of the study were making up of hundred and eight people selected from six communities or wards in Oredo Local Government Area. The instrument used for the collection of data was1 the questionnaire. The researcher hereby recommend health workers to teach the family planning users on the proper way of using family planning methods, particularly the modern contraceptive methods so that careless causalities would be prevented, the government also has a role to play in educating its populace on the ills of having children they cannot adequately cater for.
TABLE OF CONTENT
Background of the study
Statement of the problems
Significant of the study
Limitations of the study
Scope of the study/delimitations
Purpose of the study
Definitions of terms
Review of related Literature
Population of the study
Sample and sampling techniques
Validity of instruments
Reliability of instrument
Administration of the instrument
Analysis of data
Discussion of data
Suggestions for further findings
BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The primary care system in Nigeria came to provide package such as immunization, micro-nutrient support, family planning counseling, pre-natal and post-natal care, health education and basic curative care (the family manager 1997) various government have tried to implement policies aimed at reducing the population growth through family planning programmers. A better access to good quality reproductive health service particularly family planning is the key to improving healthy status especially for women.
In Africa i8 percent of women use modern contraceptive as a family planning method and those women begin childbearing in their teens and have an average of six children or more has led to a high birth rate in Nigeria, were family planning in receiving government support, various agencies have been saddled with responsibilities of promoting and educating the people concerning its use. The Planned Parenthood federation is one agency, also family planning clinics have been set up in hospitals to encourage people to plan their families, and avoid unwanted pregnancies that are for the women by bearing only the number of children they can adequately cater for.
“Rosen and Conly (1998) state” we see the need through family planning to prevent the health risk of frequent child bearing, but also to reduce the high toll of illness and death associated with pregnancy and child birth and to prevent the spread of sexually transmitted diseases (STD) including HIV/AIDS. We must explicitly state that despite various efforts made by the Nigeria government to discourage high fertility or birth increase through the use of contraceptive, awareness campaigns, and prolonged breastfeeding by mother’s etc. popular growth rate is still rising.
The research would try to ascertain how the social-cultural factors (such as norms, values, education, religion, social class, custom) are affecting the use of family planning in Oredo Local Government Area of Edo State., family planning has different meaning to people, to some, it is a method of giving birth to children by choice and not by chance, to health workers, it is the space of children. It can also be having only as many children as one can provide for, so that one can give the children proper care, enough food and opportunities for a happy life. The methods of family planning use are viz; Traditional methods (through calendar, rhythm, withdrawal and abstinence) folk methods (such as pills, condoms, vaginal methods, injection, inter-uterine, contraceptive devices (IUD), female sterilization, spermicides, impacts diaphragm etc. family planning and disease such as AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome). Family planning services must be also includes access to long acting clinical method.
Janowite et al (1999) acknowledge the fact that currently, about ten million Sub-Sahara Africa women currently make use of family planning method. Family planning is beneficial to society. Rose and Conly (1998) aggress. Stating that the access to family planning would benefit the individual and sloe down Africa’s galloping or rising population.
In Nigeria, the trend of marrying many wives and having many children is still high despite the reduction in child mortality made possible by improvement in modern health care system, at the end of the research, we should know the social-cultural factors actually affecting the use of family planning in our study area, Oredo Local Government Area of Edo State.
It was against the background of the projected world population growth especially in the developing countries and considering the consequences associated with current patterns of population control measure. In Africa, not all governments considered rapid population growth to constitute a problem to development. However, those countries that considered a rapid rise in their population as a major obstacle to development attempted to reduce the growth rate, countries such as Ghana, Kenya, Nigeria, Gambia adopted policies and programmes towards fertility and birth control in the countries.
Mrs. Saidu, a nurse at the Gwarinps General Hospital Abuja reiterated this stating that the need to control the increasing birth rate in Nigeria made family planning an acceptable programme. The traditional method came into existence it was seen as a taboo for a man to “meet with a woman he was not married to children were taught to abstain from sex. The girls were encouraged to maintain their virginity in some societies, any girl discovered to have defied her virginity before marriage was usually stoned to death. Others methods such as withdrawal, rhythm were used in our traditional societies. The culture of marrying many wives also served as a family planning method through child spacing a woman could not “meet” with her husband until she accepted traditionally, they were not very effective however for instance during withdrawal, some men could be released mistakenly before the withdrawal, leading to a “mistaken” pregnancy. Towards the beginning of the 20th century, modern contraceptive methods of family planning through the use contraceptive were invented, especially for women, the use of pills, injections, implant, condoms spermicides, diciphragm, intra-urine device (IUD) are such in Africa , there has been an increasing rate of injectable contraceptive use. These methods are seen to be a more effective method of birth control than the traditional method. In china, contraceptive are free and available to all. This has led to a drop in the birth rate by approximately 50 percent (Adams and Win Stane 1976).
Donald light and Keller S (1975) argued that three out of the very four married couples using contraceptive in 1975 favoured the most effective methods, the pills the IUD and the sterilization. Sterilization is the most popular method for couples who have been married for ten years or longer. The increasing use of sterilization as a form of contraceptive in an indication that couples are more willing to accept the irreversibility of the decision to terminate childbearing.
Despite the availability of thes1e contraceptive, population is still increasing people still feel that having large families is better, especially in the rural areas. However, educating the people on how to use family planning methods would make them more susceptible to its use which would invariably check population increase.
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
- The work is designed to show the social-cultural factors affecting the use of family planning in Oredo Local Government Area of Edo State.
- To examine the factors responsible for the ineffectiveness of family planning in Oredo Local Government Area.
- To sort out the problem facing the development of family planning in Oredo Local Government Area.
- This research work is also designed to suggest workable solution to the problem of family planning in Oredo Local Government Area of Edo State.
OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The objectives of this study are as follows;
- To identify the different social-cultural factors that affects the use of family planning in Oredo Local Government Area of Edo State.
- To highlight the different methods of family planning.
- To create awareness campaign on the use of family planning in Oredo Local Government Area.
- To educate people on how the use of these methods of family planning.
- Is family planning felt in Oredo Local Government Area of Edo State?
- How enlighten are the people of Oredo Local Government about the use of family planning?
SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This research work is limited to Oredo Local Government Area of Edo State; it is to examine the social-cultural factors affecting the use of family planning in Oredo Local Government Area. The validity of this study is limited to the accuracy of the information supplied by the respondents.
DEFINITION OF TERMS
HIV: Human Immune Deficiency Virus: This is a virus that causes AIDS.
AIDS- Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome : This is a disease caused by HIV which paralyzes all the immune system in the body.
Patriarchal system: Is a system of racing our ancestors through the male line.
Birth rate: The number of births per thousand of women between the age of fifteen and forty-nine.
Fertility: Refers to the number of live birth to women.
Crude death rate: This is the total number of death in year divided by the average total population it is usually calculated per one thousand.