Shotguns, Spray, and Smoke: Regulating Atmospheric Deposition of Pollutants under the Clean Water Act

Atmospheric Deposition


TABLE OF CONTENTS
Cover Page – – – – – – – – – –
Title Page – – – – – – – – – –
Certification – – – – – – – – – –
Dedication – – – – – – – – – –
Acknowledgement – – – – – – – – –
Abstract – – – – – – – – – –
Table of Content – – – – – – – – –
Chapter One: Introduction
Background of the Study – – – – – –
Statement of the Problem – – – – – –
Objectives of the Study – – – – – – –
Research Questions – – – – – – –
Research Hypotheses – – – – – – –
Significance of the Study – – – – – – –
Scope/ Limitation of the Study – – – – – –
Definition of Terms – – – – – – –
Chapter Two: Review of Related Literature
2.1 Introduction – – – – – – – – –
2.2 Conceptual Framework – – – – – – –
2.3 Theoretical Framework – – – – – – –
2.4 Empirical Review – – – – – – – –

Chapter Three: Research Methodology
3.1 Introduction – – – – – – – –
3.1 Research Design – – – – – – – –
3.3 Area of the Study – – – – – – – –
3.4 Population of the Study – – – – – – –
3.5 Sample Size and Sampling Techniques – – – –
3.6 Instrumentation – – – – – – – –
3.7 Validation of the Instrument – – – – – –
3.8 Administration of the Instrument – – – – –
3.9 Method of Data Analysis – – – – – – –

Chapter Four: Presentation, Analysis and Interpretation of Data
4.1 Introduction – – – – – – – – –
4.2 Presentation and Analysis of Data – – – – –
4.3 Testing of Hypotheses – – – – – – –
4.4 Discussion of Findings – – – – – – –
Chapter Five: Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations
5.1 Introduction – – – – – – – – –
5.2 Summary – – – – – – – – –
5.3 Conclusion – – – – – – – – –

I. INTRODUCTION ...................................... 216
II. ATMOSPHERIC MERCURY POLLUTION AS A CASE
STUDY ILLUSTRATING THE SCIENCE OF
ATMOSPHERIC DEPOSITION AND THE EXISTING
REGULATORY SCHEME............................. 221
III. THE CLEAN WATER ACT AND THEORIES OF
D ISCHARGE .......................................... 232
IV. ATMOSPHERIC DEPOSITION OF POLLUTANTS AND
THE Two RATIONALES OF DISCHARGE ............ 235
A. The Indirect Discharge Rationale ............... 235
B. The Point Source Rationale .................... 237
1. Addition of Pollutants via Land: The Effect
of G ravity ................................. 239
2. Addition of Pollutants via the Atmosphere:
The Effects of Gravity and Predictability .. 244
a. Shotgun Pellets and Clay Pigeons ...... 245
b. Pesticide Spray and Incinerator
Em issions .............................. 250

* The author is an attorney in Los Angeles, and a former law clerk to Judge Paul
C. Huck, United States District Court for the Southern District of Florida. B.A.,
Dartmouth College; J.D., Washington College of Law-American University. I
thank Howard Fox and Steve Roady of Earthjustice for their initial inspiration and
guidance. Thank you also to Dr. Charles Driscoll, Syracuse University Professor of
Environmental Systems Engineering, for sharing his knowledge and answering my
questions regarding atmospheric transport and deposition of mercury. Finally, my
eternal gratitude to Alison Collins Antony for her patience, support, and proof-
reading.