EFFECT OF MANUAL LABOUR ON THE ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF PRIMARY SCHOOL PUPILS,


CASE STUDY OF OVIA NORTH EAST LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF EDO STATE

ABSTRACT

This study was aimed at identifying the effect of manual labour on the academic performance of primary school pupils in Ovia North East Local Government Area of Edo State and to proffer possible solutions to the problem. The review of revealed different forms of child abuse mentioned out to students in some selected school in Ovia North East Local Government Area of Edo State by parents, teachers and guardians. Some of the abuse and consequences were attributed to poverty, ignorance and inaguancies in protection of children while others are seen as deliberate. The population of the study comprises of five schools selected from all the primary schools in Esan West Local Government Area. A total of 100 questionnaires were used for data collection and analysis were presented in table one of five and the total scores were used to analyze the data. It was revealed that children of school age are thrown out of school because of inability of their parents to train them. Base on the findings, some recommendations were made.    

TABLE OF CONTENT

Chapter One     

Background of study

Statement of the problem

Purpose of study

Objective of the study

Significance of the study

Basic assumptions

Research questions

Hypothesis

Scope of the study

Limitation of study

Definition of terms

Chapter Two     

Literature review

Self-medication

Causes of drug abuse

Sociology of drug abuse

Effect of drug abuse

Chapter Three  

Research Design and Methodology

Sample and sampling method

Problems encountered during the project

Method of data collection

Data analysis

Chapter Four    

Data analysis

Chapter Five     

Summary

Conclusion

Recommendations

Suggestion and further research

Bibliography     

Questionnaire  

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

Child labour is a global problem and its elimination is being called for in the world. According to a recent international labour organization (ILO) report, it was estimated that there are 250 million children between the ages of 5 and 14 years working in developing countries, 120 million are working full-time while 130 million are working part-time. Manual labour in children is widely spread in Nigeria. According to government figure, household census (1999) 1.7 million of Nigeria children age 5-7 years old are involved in some kind of work and may have to miss school to go out for work instead, while many are putting themselves in arms way.

Manual labour is a productive work (especially physical work done for wages). Is also a physical work done by people, most especially in contrast to that done by machines and also to that done by working animals. Report survey published by an aid agency, International Rescue Committee (IRC) and AVSI Foundation (2006) showed that 15% of children in Northern Nigeria are involved in harsh, dangerous labour such as breaking stones, collecting firewood and prostitution. Nigeria’s constitution (1999) chapter 1, article 34(4) provides for protection of a child from hazardous and exploitative work.  In context of this project, policy is defined as a cause of action intentionally undertaken with specific purpose in mind (2005). In its simplest form, plicy refers to abroad statement that reflects future goals and aspirations and provides guidelines for carrying out those goals. The government constituted child labour law to guide the child from hazardous work that could otherwise interfere with their physical and mental development. However, the implementation of the child labour policy has attracted the interest of some academicians.

Academic performance is all the performance reflected on the education of the child. Meer (2007) stated that education performance reflects the total involvement of a child or youth in the school environment which includes social and emotional development, communication and participation in the classrooms as well as out of class activities. Poor performance means a child who do not conform to a required standards i.e. late arrival dodging lessons poor examination achievement. When the academic performance of pupils in Ovia North East  was looked at it gave a sign for justification of existence poor performance among the pupils. It was viewed in terms of late arrival absenteeism examination from  2005 to 2010, merely 21 pupils passed in division 1, 176 in division 2 and 278 failed in division U. many of the school going age children are being seen by the road side either selling food items or loitering despite all the efforts  being put by the government to combat manual labour or child labour.

Edo State Government like every other state in Nigeria, has refused to put any social security policy in place to carter for the benefit of the child in matters on state affairs. When a child is deprived the basic social needs that makes life worth living by the society he/she belongs to the birth, such a child will become victim of transmitting life experience that often leads to personal problem. Today, in Edo State, many female children are compelled to help situation in the society to willingly accede to the pressure of their parents to travel abroad on the sponsorship of some international cartel that specializes in recruiting under-age female children into prostitution.

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM      

Manual labour of the child is perceived to be a serious problem, as it is believed to be destructive to children’s intellectual and physical development especially that of young children. The danger is exacerbated for those children who work in hazardous industries. This is theory behind the child labour trap. If a child is employed and subsequently has low productivity as an adult. So child labours can directly contribute to adult unemployment in developing countries. A major covet is that there is very little treatment of such long term dynamic consequences of child labour, (Annabel, 2008).

PURPOSE OF THE STUDY

The main objective of the study is to examine the effect of manual labour on the academic performance of primary school pupils in Ovia North East Local Government Area of Edo State. It also suggested the way to improve children’s welfare and academic performance in schools.

RESEARCH QUESTIONS

For the purpose of this study, the researcher imposes the following questions;

  1. Can manual labour affect a child’s academic performance?
  2. Can manual labour cause bone fracture in pupils?
  3. Can manual labour lead to poor academic performance among pupils?
  4. Can manual labour lead to truancy among pupils?

 

SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The significance of this study can be seen with the fact that manual labour in children has been depreciating the academic performance of the students in Ovia North East. Enlightenment of students, labourers, teachers and traders and the general public will reduce manual labour or child labour in children.

LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

Time factor is one of the major limiting factors, there are not enough time to travel round the whole state to interview the students, farmers, traders, teachers individually or collectively. Another limiting factor of the study is accessibility of some primary schools in Ovia North East Local Government Area of Edo State.