LEAKAGES OF CONFIDENTIAL INFORMATION IN BUSINESS ORGANIZATION: CAUSES AND EFFECTS
Leakages of confidential information are an action or result of disclosing of secret information. While record is a document preserving piece of evidence or information constituting an official account of something that has been said and occurred etc. Having known the meaning of the key words we can now see that leakages of confidential information are all about the disclosure of official documented records. Based on the foregoing, we see the causes and effects of leakages of confidential information as those factors which could warrant the disclosure of official records to the public or the wrong hands thereby decrementing the information therein. And the effects of information disclosure, could affect a business organization adversely, which could go a long way to collapse a business setup through adulteration (inferior and imitation). Therefore, it would be wise to find out who or those responsible for this ugly trend in our business organizations.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title Page i
Approval Page ii
Certification Page iii
Table of Contents vii
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
Background of the Study 1
Statement of the Problem 3
Objectives of the Study
Purpose of the Study 4
Research Questions 5
Significance of the Study 5
Scope of study 7
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
The concept of official secret 9
The source of official secret in business organizations 11
How confidential information can be protected
and controlled 13
Workers that are responsible for leakage of
confidential information 16
Consequences of information leakages 21
Summary of literature reviewed 23
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Design of Study 24
Area of Study 24
Population of Study 25
Sample and sampling 25
Instrument used for Data Collection 25
Method of Data Collection 25
Method of Data Analysis 26
CHAPTER FOUR: PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA
Research Question 1 24
Research Question 2 26
Research Question 3 27
Research Question 4 29
Discussion of findings 36
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
Restatement of the Problem 40
Summary of Finding s 41
BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
According to Njoku, (2005) “one can say that the journey of a document is not an easy one, but could be by saying that the security of a document is an easy one if certain principles are adhered to.
Causes and effects of leakages of confidential information has remained un-rectifiable factor in business organizations, and also professional offices. But the vent and channels through which these matters get out of place remains the bane of some productive organizations. This is because important files or figures are exposed to those who are not supposed to have access to them.
Confidential information is those official issues with paramount importance to business organizations. Also they can be those private matters appertaining to office affairs, which also could be seen as the life wire of a business. And because of its importance should be kept away from the limelight of the general public.
Leakages of confidential information are the unauthorized disclosures of certain information or bringing them to limelight of those who are not supposed to have access to them. If the information is mismanaged and there is leakage, there would be exceptional great damage to the organization. (Ihekwoaba, 2005).
Business organizations are body of persons organized for some commercial activities aimed at making profit for themselves; it can be publicly or partly owned. There is a “maxim” that says business is “secret”, therefore official issues which are matters that are very important to the organization should be kept secret.
Causes and effects of leakages of confidential information are believed to be numerous, but some of them will be elaborated to the best of my knowledge. Confidential information should not be kept at the reach of everybody in the organization. This is because they form major part of management decisions and actions. The causes of information leakage must be those who have access to them.
STATEMENT OF PROBLEMS
Causes and effects of leakages of confidential information have always been of great concern to both private and public business organizations. It is an amazing thing to some of the Directors and Managers to discover, that it is within their midst that those highly important facts of the organization get out of place. In some instances, their subordinate like the secretary, clerk, typist and manager are also accused of being responsible for the circulation of confidential information in the organization. The perpetrators of this act have persistently continued to device a new means of getting access to official issues. This study is embodied on, to find out the best way of keeping official secret intact and raid of disclosures.
PURPOSE OF STUDY
The major purpose of this study was to determine the causes and effects of leakages of confidential information in business organizations. Specifically the study will attempt to;
- Determine the concept of official secrets
- Identify workers who would be responsible for the act of leakages
- Identify sources of official secrets in business organizations
- Determine the consequences of leakages of confidential information in business organizations
- Evaluate how confidential information can be controlled and protected.
- Proffer remedies
OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
- To determining the concept of official secret?
- To determining what identify the sources of official secrets in business organizations?
- To determining what confidential information be controlled and protected?
- To determining what responsible for leakages of confidential information?
- To determining what consequences of information leakages in business organizations?
- To determining the remedies?
- What is the concept of official secret?
- How can you identify the sources of official secrets in business organizations?
- How can confidential information be controlled and protected?
- Who are those responsible for leakages of confidential information?
- What are the consequences of information leakages in business organizations?
- What are the remedies?
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The worthwhile ness of this piece of work has put in place the need to state some of the significance leakages of confidential information business organizations. Because of the strategic nature of the information, over the years, organizations have spent tremendous amount of money (resources) in hope to protecting their important information.
However, efforts have been made in focused on preventing outsiders from hawking into the organizations, educating and securing data at rest. According to analyst, the majority of all leakages are as a result of unintentionally information loss from employees and partners, both internal and external. The average information leakage costs organization approximately N182 per record (according to pneumonic institution).
The high cost of a breach can have a profound effect on organizations, market presence, and competitive advantages as a result of damage to brand and reputation and loss of customers. As organizations invest millions in business systems, increasing availability information to build or maintain a competitive edge there, remain a slew of security related considerations.
SCOPE OF STUDY
The scope of this study is specifically on causes and effects of leakages of confidential information in business organizations. The study covered three selected business organizations in Owerri, Imo State. The organizations include Nigerian Bottling Company (coca-cola), Power Holding Company of Nigeria (PHCN), and Nigerian Tele-communication Plc (NITEL).
LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
In the process of carrying out this study, a lot of unit action came up as limiting forces and they include the following forces.
- Lack of adequate fund to cover great part in the case of interview and observations.
- Restrictions possessed by some Executives and Secretaries in the company who are unwilling to give out information freely.
- Shortness of time also affected the research work negatively.