THE USE OF INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIAL IN SOME SELECTED SECONDARY SCHOOL:A CASE STUDY OF OREDO USE OF INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS IN SECONDARY SCHOOLLOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF EDO STATE


ABSTRACT

This research is on the study of the use of instructional materials in some selected secondary schools in Oredo Local Government Area of Edo State. The entire project will be divided into five chapters. The first chapter will deal with the introduction and statement of the problem relating to the subject matter. The second chapter will deal with the literature review of all relevant tests published. The third chapter will deal with the research methodology in this research, questionnaire method. The fourth chapter will deal with the presentation of data and data analysis. The data findings will also be discussed while the fifth and final chapter possible recommendations and to improve the use of instructional in some selected secondary schools in Oredo Local Government Area in particular.

TABLE OF CONTENT

CHAPTER ONE      

Introduction

1.1            Background Statement

1.2            Purpose of the study

1.3            Basic assumption

1.4            Research questions

1.5            Significance of the study

1.6            Definition of terms

CHAPTER TWO        

Literature Review

2.1            The history of instructional materials

2.2            Audio materials

2.3            Visual materials

2.4            The role of instructional materials in the teaching and learning process

2.5            The effect of instructional materials on the teaching and learning

CHAPTER THREE    

Methodology

3.1            introduction

3.2            Population of study

3.3            Research instrument

3.4            Statistics techniques employed in the analysis

CHAPTER FOUR       

Analysis of data

CHAPTER FIVE         

Findings

5.1            Summary

5.2            Conclusion

5.3            Recommendations

5.4            Suggestions for further study

REFERENCES  

QUESTIONNAIRES  

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

One present concern about the quality of instructional materials arises not because our school have performed quality of education be simple improved in schools today emphasizes is learn on both qualitative and quantities curriculum content method and techniques and qualified teachers. With the increase in the number of schools as well as in student’s enrolment, there arise the problems of shortage of qualified teachers, physical facilities and instructional materials. This is the general desire and pursuit of quality education shown by the public because of the apparent falling standard in the performance of our educational instructions.Instructional Material

This is an era when school enrolment is on the increase tremendously and quality of the teachers leaves much to be designed educational technology can not be ruled out as an instructional innovation. According to Brown and Thornton (2001) the gradual shift towards the use of instructional material in education has been encouraged by increased availability of effective, appropriate and convenient materials, devices machine and classroom facilities designed for improving instructions, instructional materials are only equipment which are employed with the sense particularly that sight the use of audio-visual aid therefore become a necessity to supplement the available instructional resources and qualified teachers. The current stations of audio-visual material in Nigerian school is very cruel and unsatisfactory. The development occurred in stages 1960s, there were audio-visual aids or instructional materials in the form of education, television and radio broadcasting unit at both federal and state ministries of education in all subjects.Instructional Material

Before the official support for instructional material started coming from the university in 1960s, the pioneering audio-visual instructional effort was already carried used in teaching are the 16mm film strips, 8mm film maps slides, radio programmes and television programme, cassette, tapes and real objects.Instructional Material

The use of audio visual material is not without justification, as they are considered relevant to curriculum improvement and general learning teaching processes. The use of instructional material cannot be overemphasized.

1)     Instructional materials provided with interest compelling springboard with can lunched students into a wide variety of learning activities.Instructional Material

2)     Instructional materials his/her student horizon of experience.

3)     Instructional materials offer with opportunity for students to develop communicating skills while activities engage in solving meaningful problem.

4)     Instructional materials multiply the efficiency of teachers by providing historical stimuli and response guidance for individual students.

5)     Instructional materials enable the teachers to overcome physical difficulties of presenting subject matter.

STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

The need to impact the appropriate concepts cannot be overemphasized. The practical relevance of the subjects pre-supposes therefore that the teaching aid or instructional materials should be as close to reality as possible. This in fact has not been so, teaching has been arbitrarily done without relevant instructional materials. They over look and understand the overwhelming importance of teaching and learning process.

The days when teachers only use chalkboard lecture method of teaching and learning are over according to Okpala (2002). The combination of usual and oral present action is likely to make deeper impression on the students than could normally be achieved by conventional textbooks teaching.

At this point, it is necessary to state these problems;

1)     Do the schools have adequate manpower or facilities for the teaching and learning process?

2)     Does the available instructional materials for teaching and learning affect the subject performance?

3)     What facilities are available in secondary school for teaching and learning process?

PURPOSE OF THE STUDY

Most often, very many teachers teach without instructional materials. They believe that any teachers who teach subject like the physical science, mathematics etc. need to use instructional materials because these subjects need laboratory experiments. The study is therefore aimed at achieving the following objectives.Instructional Material

1)     To determine the extent teaching and process teachers utilize these materials.Instructional Material

2)     They find out the factors that militate against the use of these materials in teaching and learning in schools.

3)     To find out the types of instructional materials that is available in secondary schools in Oredo.

4)     To know if learners understand better with the use of instructional materials or not.

BASIC ASSUMPTIONS

For the purpose of this study, the following assumptions have been made:

1.      Most teachers do not advocate the use of instructional materials in teaching.

2.      That very few schools have instructional materials.

3.      That most teachers often teach without visual materials.

HYPOTHESIS

1)     Financial capacity has an indirect relationship with the use of instructional materials in schools.

2)     There is no significant difference between the performance of students taught with instructional materials and those taught without instructional materials.

3)     The extent of which teachers use instructional materials a direct relationship or students’ performance.Instructional Material

SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

Majority of the researcher that have been conducted into the machines of learners have revealed that many instructional processes which evoke the involvement of human sensory tend to facilitate the permanency of learning. The use of audio visual material in the teaching and learning process cannot be overemphasized. They help bridges the gap between abstraction and reality but only a few teaching and learning process teachers have realized this, because the students do not necessarily see the inter-relationship between that fact, he learn and the immediate use of this knowledge, his motivation. If this weakness of deficiency is gradually to overcome the educational objectives in teaching, should aim at developing creative ability fostering scientific decision making process.

One way of achieving this is to provide students with the opportunity to study teaching and learning process with the use4 of audio-visual aids, which facilitate the acquisition retention and recall of lesson learned.Instructional Material

DELIMITATION OF THE STUDY

Due to the wideness of the local government area where this study was carried out of the poor condition of some of the roads leading to these areas. This study was limited to five schools, which represent 5% of the target population. Financial constraints definitely constitute delimitations especially against the backdrop of the structural adjustment programme currently being pursed by the government of Nigeria.Instructional Material