THE EFFECT OF INCREASING POPULATION IN NIGERIA:A CASE STUDY OF IKPOBA OKHA LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF EDO STATE

Increasing Population


ABSTRACT

This project work is on the effect of increasing population in Nigeria, a case study of Ikpoba Okha Local Government Area of Edo State. The need for this study arose because of the increase in population in the country. Some of the research questions used for the study is as follows; 

  1. Does increase in population lead to poverty in Nigeria?
  2. Does increase in population lead to unemployment in Nigeria?
  3. Does overpopulation lead to food shortage in Nigeria?
  4. Does increase in population lead to illness/disease/death?
  5. Does increase in population lead to pollution?

In the course of this research work, questionnaires were designed and administered to some workers within the locality. The information collected was then analyzed, interpreted and used to test the research question stated. From the result, it was revealed that increase in population lead to poverty, unemployment, food shortage, illness/disease/death, pollution etc in Ikpoba Okha Local Government Area. Based on these findings the following recommendations were made to limit the increase in population. Some of the recommendations are as follows; female education should be encouraged in other to reduce high rate of pregnancy, early marriage should be discouraged. Also government should create jobs, and also to encourage farmers by giving them incentives to boost productivity of food.

TABLE OF CONTENT

CHAPTER ONE

Introduction

Statement of the problem

Research questions

Purpose of the study

Significance of the study

Scope of the study

Operational definition of terms

CHAPTER TWO

Literature review

CHAPTER THREE

Research methodology

Research design

Data collection

Population of the study

Sample and sampling procedure

Instrumentation

Validity

Method of data analysis

CHAPTER FOUR

Data analysis and discussion

CHAPTER FIVE

Summary

Conclusion

Recommendations

REFERENCES

QUESTIONNAIRE

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

  1. BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

In contemporary society, population has become an important issue of concern. This is so because population in terms of its size and composition has far reaching implication of change development and the quality of life in society. Population is a major asset, as resources for development in the society; it constitutes the bulk of the producers of goods and services as well as the major consumer of goods and services.

Increasing population is a condition where the actual numbers of the people in a given demographic area starts to exceed the carrying capacity of its habitat. In common language, the term often refers to the relationship between the human population and its environment. Overpopulation does not depend only on the size or density of the population, but on the ratio of population to available sustainable resources are used and distributed throughout the population. This population growth can result from an increase in births, a decline in mortality rates due to medical advances from an increase in immigration, unsustainable biome and depletion of resources. It is possible for very sparsely populated area to be overpopulated as the area in question may have a meager or non-existent capability to sustain human life.

The resources to be considered when evaluating whether an environment is overpopulated include clean water, clean air, food shelter, warmth and other resources necessary to sustain life. Overpopulation places competitive stress on the basic life sustaining resources, leading to a diminishing quality of life. According to the 2006 census figure which was conducted by the national population commission is 140million, with the male, 1, 273, 208 and female was 1, 296,973. In Edo State, male was 1, 082,718 while female 1, 077,130. At this rate, Nigeria is one of the fastest growing populations in the world.

The effect of population growth on economic development differs between the developed and developing countries. In the developed country, population growth has enhanced the growth of such economy because they are wealthy, have abundant capital and scarcity of labour. Population growth has adversely affected the economy of developing country. Precisely every increase in population has led to more problems than benefits. Some of the negative effects of population growth include high population growth rate require massive investment in social infrastructure. Due to the shortage of investment funds, social infrastructure like education, health, transports and housing is likely to decrease. This result in overcrowding and declining quality of services and therefore mitigating against an improvement in the quality of the population as agents of production. Increase in population is seen to have devastating effects on environment. Rapidly increasing numbers of people puts pressure on the available land and other resources. This therefore prompts the opening up of new farmlands, most of which are ecologically, sensitive (e.g. forests, swamps and hills sides). In many cases, the pressure of population growth force people to obtain more food for themselves and this results in over cultivation and eventually yield reduce. In addition, rural-urban migration and its associated problems are as a result of population growth. Population growth depresses savings and capital formation. As population increases, per capital income falls, people are required to feed more children therefore expenditure on consumer’s goods and services.

  1. STATEMENT OF PROBLEMS

The main problem of this project is to investigate the effect of increased population with particular reference to Ikpoba Okha Local Government Area of Edo State.

To find out if the people of Ikpoba Okha Local Government Area understand the effect of increased population.

To carry out various methods or ways to control the effect of increased population.

  1. SCOPE OF STUDY

This research work is expected to look at population and its effect with particular reference to Ikpoba Okha Local Government Area of Edo State inn Nigeria.

  1. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The findings of this research work will help the government mainly in estimating the total manpower available for production and total amount of goods and services required for their consumption. It will also help the government to plan ahead in other to avoid the coming catastrophe as a result of the unrestricted rise in population. And lastly, it will help to know the level of literacy in our country and think of what steps should be taken to remove illiteracy from our country.

  1. OBJECTIVE OF THE RESEARCH

The purpose of this study is to highlight the effect of increasing population in Nigeria. Meanwhile the study is to be restricted to Ikpoba Okha Local Government Area of Edo State. The point listed below is some of the considered purpose of this study;

  1. Lack of employment
  2. Food shortage
  3. The spread of  disease
  4. Increase in income
  5. Illiteracy
  6. RESEARCH QUESTIONS

The following research questions will be verified in this work.

  1. Does increase in population leads to poverty in Nigeria?
  2. Does increase in population lead to unemployment in Nigeria?
  3. Does overpopulation lead to food shortage in Nigeria?
  4. Does increase in population lead to illness/disease/death in Nigeria?
  5. Does increase in population lead to pollution?

DEFINITION OF TERMS

Birth Control:

The practice of controlling the number of children or preventing unwanted pregnancies, typically by use of contraceptives.

Census:

This is the counting of people in a country.Increasing Population

Demography:

This is the scientific study of population.Increasing Population

Developing Nation:

This is a country whose resource does not undergo equal distribution with the number of population.Increasing Population

Developed Nation:

This is a country whose resources undergo equal distribution with the number of population.Increasing Population