THE IMPLICATION OF COMMON CURRENCY FOR WEST AFRICAN COUNTRIES
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This project research is primarily aimed at dealing with the implications of a common currency for West African countries. As the world is geared towards globalization, West African countries deemed it very imperative to adopt the use of common currency in the sub-region just like their European or Francophone counterparts.
The central focus of this research is to know the extent to which the ECOWAS member states have gone in establishing a common currency for West African, to find out if the introduction of West African common currency will enhance economic growth and development in the sub-region; to examine some policy measures introduced to boost the adoption of a west African common currency. To achieve these, the researcher made use of both primary and secondary data questionnaire were extensively distributed to the officials of CBN (Enugu zonal office), First Bank Plc (zonal office Enugu) and NACIMA also in Enugu.
Based on the objectives of the study, the findings reveal that the extent to which the ECOWAs member states have gone in establishing a common currency for west Africa is not impressive nor encouraging. The establishment of a common currency for west Africa will only enhance economic growth and development in the sub – region if member stats are sincere and dedicated to the common objective, the policy measures introduced to boost the adoption of a west Africa, common currency is less encouraging and other berecuatracice associated with the introduction of common currency for west Africa in relation to trade within the sub-region could not help matters. Based on this findings, recommendations were member states that should be dedicated and committed to the project as it will, unequivocally, enhance their economic well –being an boost their political and economic image worldwide.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.1 Background of the study
1.2 Statement of the problem
1.3 Purpose of the study
1.4 Research questions
1.5 Significance of the study
1.6 Scope and limitation of the study
2.2 West African Countires – ECOWAs
2.3 Problem of ECOWAs
2.4 West African Currency Board (WACB)
2.4.1 West African Currency Board operation
2.4.2 The concept – common currency
2.5 Global common currency
2.5.1 The Euro – Dollar
2.6 The need for global common currency
2.7 Management, headquarters and mode of operation of West African Common Currency
2.8 The prospect o common currency for West African
2.9 The problems facing the establishment of common currency for Africa.
3.1 Method of investigation
3.2 Instrument of data collection
3.3 Primary sources of data
3.4 Secondary sources of data
3.5 Population and determination of sample size
3.6 Validity and reliability of research instrument
Data presentation and analysis
4.1 Data analysis techniques
4.2 Analysis of questionnaires
Summary of findings, recommendations and conclusion
5.1 Summary of findings
BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The actual study for establishment of a common currency for west African state (ECOWAS) and drafting of a programme of monetary and fiscal polices of members states was between 1985 and 1986 period (Arah, 2001: 29). In response to the study, the sub-region monetary co-operation programme involving short and long term measures were seen to be economic flight (Ogwuma 1998:3). The highest level of economic integration is the monetary union, which involves the integration of trade and micro-economic policies and establishment of a common central bank and a single currency.
The establishment of a monetary union is however consequent on the member states, meeting the convertibility condition of monetary and fiscal prudence and other macro – economic convergence indicators which are the short and long term measures. The short term measures were settlement of areas in the west Africa monetary agency (WAMA), clearing system establishment of a credit guarantee fund, introduction of new payment instrument like ECOWAS travelers cheques and extension of the range of products eligible for transactions through the clearing system. According to Ezema (2001;30) the long term measures include liberation of trade and payment system in all member countries, liberation of all interest and exchange rate, reduction of inflation to a single digit and creation of a single currency zone within the sub-region by the year 2000 (the deadline for achieving the measure by all member countries was set for 1988). However, most member states beat the deadline while the traveler cheques issues was delay due to political and economic muscle flexing between the Unions Economiuqe Manetaire Quest Africa (UEMQA) members and the rest. The traveler cheques afforded one of the most realistic steps towards achieving economic integration and a single momentary zone, but had to suffer several postponement due to various reasons. The initial disagreement among member states was on the modalities for finding the cheques out of the ‘ghost” or imagined position to the members in the scheme of things. In the words of Olajide (2001:31) at another attempt in 1998, some CFFA zone members did not attend the summit on the ground that the delegates wanted to conclude some contracts with their home governments. This was done without notice even as it suffered postponement for another meeting with France before that of the travelers cheques launch.
In February 1998, at the planned launching in Abuja, all disagreement were resolved under the auspices of an adequate-hoc committee set up by the ECOWAS heads of states composing Cote D’ voice, Ghana, Mali, Togo and Nigeria. Univocally, the CFA zone members were in vanguard of the launching of the travelers cheques in 1999. Ostensibly due to the successful establishment of Euro (the European common currency which will take over the national currencies in Europe in 2004), and therefore effectively terminate the French Support for CFA. On December 15, 2000, heads of state and governments of ECOWAS in Bamako, Mali approved the decision to establish a common currency by 2003. the decision was the result of the initiative take by Ghana and Nigeria in a bilateral economic meeting on December 1999 to adopt a two – track system called FAST TRACK APPROACH (FTA) to the implementation of ECOWAS integration programmes for West African in 2004. The fast track approach recognize the need to have a parallel zone christened West Africa monetary Zone (WAMZ) the UEMOA to work for a gradual merger of the two at appointed period in line with the deadline.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
In spite of the numerous efforts made by the ECOWAS member states to establish a common currency in West Africa which will help to foster economic integration international the sub – region by implementing ECOWAS monetary measures, the issue of common currency is still a mirage because of the following reasons;
- i) The strength of the economics of these West African countries vary, so there is no common relationship between their monies.
- ii) Divergent tariff structure among member countries.
iii) Low level of intra-regional trade in the sub region since less than 5 percent of the total international trade of the sub region is channeled
- iv) The political instability in some of the countries of the sub region.
- v) Inability of the proper member states to meet up with the demand of the monetary zone.
1.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The main purpose of this project is on the implication of a common currency for West African Sub-region. Other purposes of the study included.
- i) To trace the extent to which the ECOWAS member states are committed in establishing a common currency for West Africa.
- ii) To find out if the establishment of a West Africa common currency will enhance the economic growth and development in the sub – region.
iii) To examine some policy measures introduced to boost the adoption of the West Africa common currency.
- iv) To find out the problem militating against the immediate establishment of the West African common currency and ways of curbing the problem.
- v) To profer solutions, and make recommendations based on the findings.
1.4 Research Questions
- i) To what extent has the ECOWAS states gone in establishing a common currency for West Africa.
- ii) Will the establishment of a West Africa common currency enhance economic growth and development in the sub-region?
Iii) What policy measures have been introduced to boost the adoption of West African common currency?
- iv) What are the problems militating against the establishment of West African common currency and ways of nipping these problems on board?
It is hoped that the finding and recommendations of this project will.
- i) Be a partial fulfilment of the requirement of the award of Higher National Diploma in accountancy.
- ii) Enable ECOWAS member states to know the problem delaying the establishment of common currency for West Africa.
iii) Be a great help to future researchers who will want to share ideas.
- iv) Encourages ECOWAS members to show more interest towards the adoption of a West Africa Common currency.
1.5 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The area coverage research of this project is Enugu. The research is to determine the implication of common currency for West Africa sub – region.