The purpose of this project was to examine critically on the Impact of Leadership styles on employee motivation and job performance.
In gainingmore insight into this topic, we reviewed some literature and work of some reputable authors in the area related to leadership styles used by management.
Four research hypotheses were formulated to avoid deviation from the main purpose of study. The hypothesis centred on the Impact of Leadership styles on employee motivation and job performance.
Questionnaires discussions and personal interviews were used as the primary source in gathering necessary information and also textbooks and journals were used as the secondary source of information.
The information supplied on the questionnaires are then analyzed on different tables using percentages where appropriate.
The reliability of the working instrument was measured through the use of statistical method.
The test of hypotheses was done using correction method and on the basis of the findings, we made some recommendation on the styles of leadership the management can adopt in order to achieve their organizational objectives .
Every business enterprise and organization in general has a common purpose, which is the attainment of objectives. For this purpose, different kinds of resources have to be pooled together and utilized. Among these there are land, capital and labour, which is the human resources.
Of all these it is commonly believed that the human resource is the most important. This might not be unconnected with tile fact that the human resource brings together all other resources towards achieving set objectives. One can justifiably say that the employees of an organization occupy a pride
of place in the execution of the operation. For this reason, the motivation and
satisfaction of employees ought to be seen as an imperative for the machinery
of an organization to function effectively.
Studies have revealed that there are quite a number of variables that affect employee motivation viz: remuneration, work environment, objectives of the
employee and other forms of intrinsic motives. But amongst scholars of schools of behavioural theories, there seems to be a general agreement that behaviour in organization is affected by leadership and leadership styles.
Leadership appears to be the most critical problem encountered in management andhas been a long standing topic of concern. It is basically the management that deals with directing, influencing and established goals. It focuses on the human resources of an organization and for this reason it is
considered as the most prominent variable affecting. employee attitude. perceptions and motivation.
For the group's effort to be effective the activities of workers need the support and direction of a leader. Leadership is a social influencing process for the attainment of goals, an ability to induce subordinates to work towards individual and group goals with confidence and keenest.
Leadership also implies that the leader accepts responsibility for the achievement of the group objectives and it is therefore essential for trust and co-operation from both sides to exist at all times.
Based on this, the basic attempts in this study will be to establish a relationship between leadership style and employee motivation to determine the extent of influence of the former on the latter.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The Nigerian Breweries Plc is a public liability company specialized in the brewering of alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages located at Orile Iganmu, a
suburb in Apapa Lagos. It started business in 1946 with the Star Larger and Guider brands of alcoholic beverages. Today, the company has additional five branches in Ibadan, Aba, Kaduna, Enugu and Jos and positing a net profit after tax in excess of six hundred and ten million naira in 1979. The total staff strength of the Lagos brewery currently stands at five hundred and twenty, twenty of which are management executives and twelve department consisting of Administration, Accounts, Production, Marketing, Maintenance, Human Resources and Pub1ic Relation etc.
Company policies are documented in the hall book which clarifies the code of conduct and procedures for grievance handling as well as disciplinary actions. This is to ensure smooth running of operations and to build effective and pleasant organizational relationships. Other brands of beverages that have so far joined the stable of the company are Maltina, Greensand Shandy and Legend Extra Stout.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
In all human endeavours, actions begins and end with man and the resultant effects of these actions manifest on man. Invariably, he is the pivot for all social and economic actions and therefore holds the key to the continued existence of any organization. Such organization pursuing specific goals and objectives is a stratified social system bringing together people from all walks
of life for the common purpose of working and being rewarded.
People have been known to have different beliefs, ideologies, values and orientations and these have been found to affects their behaviours. These have consequences to the organization and therefore bring to the fore the duties of management and the need to strike a balance between these human attitudes and the demands of both the internal and external environmental situations the organization finds itself. Also for sometime wide skepticisms have abound concerning the motivation of workers in various public and private establishments. A general feeling is that workers in public enterprises exhibit a negative and less responsible attitude to work as a result of the low level of leadership influence open to them (Perrow Charles, 1970).
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
In the light of the above problems, this research will set about the following:
1. Determine the influence of leadership styles on the attitudes and motivation of workers on the basis of application of various theories of
leadership and motivation as well as the data extracted from an organization.
2. Establish a relationship between motivation and productivity as a function of effective supervision. This becomes imperative when it is known that administrative action in most organizations is ultimately directed at building and sustaining output.
3. Demonstrate the effect of leadership action on the output of those being lead knowing fully well that workplace interactions to an extent also effect productivity.
4. Address the issue of low productivity in organizations through improved
and matching supervision styles.
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY.
The findings of this research and conclusions drawn from it as well as the
suggestion proffered will hopefully be of great value to:
1. Researchers who might want to study more on the topic of this study.
2. Practicing managers particularly within the Nigerian Breweries Plc.
3. Serve as a source of inspiration to the' Nigerian Breweries Plc to make the necessary modifications in order to enhance the quality and efficiency of its staff motivational policies.
1.5 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1. How does leadership behaviour affect employee performance?
2. What are the vital virtues of the leader in any organization?
3. What are the effect of freedom of Initiative on Job satisfaction and commitment?
4. Can low productivity be corrected by changes in supervision styles?
1.6 WORKING HYPOTHESIS
Ho: There is no significant relationship between leadership styles and employee motivation in determining job performance
Hi: There is a significant relationship between leadership styles and employee motivation in determining job performance.
Ho: There is no significant relationship between employee motivation and productivity as a function of effective supervision.
Hi: There is a significant relationship between employee motivation and productivity as a function of effective supervision.
1.7 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
Chapter one will contain the introduction under which we have the problem statement, objectives of the study, research questions, research hypotheses, background to the study and plan of the study. Chapter two focuses on literature review in which different motivators gave their ideas on employee motivation in the organization while the third chapter will center on methodology. Chapter four will include analysis of data and presentation of result while the last chapter will contain the summary, conclusions and recommendations.
Due to time and financial constraints, the sample size to be studies has been limited to sixty employees, most of whom will be junior and production factory staff. It is hoped that this group will provide more relevant information since most 'subordinates' fall within this category.
1.8 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
The principal methodology that will be used to collect data and information in this research will be primary source and secondary source. However, great emphasis will be placed on the primary data, which include personal interview questionnaire. The secondary data include text of journal articles, textbooks on relevant case of the study. We would then have the research question to assess the impact of leadership style on employee motivation and job performance.
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