IMPACT OF MASS MEDIA CAMPAIGN AGAINST AIDS AMONG TEENAGERS(A CASE STUDY OF ENUGU METROPOLIS)


Mass Media Campaign

ABSTRACT

This study is aimed to ascertain the impact of mass media campaign aimed at curbing the spread of the diseases Aids among teenager in Nkanu Local Government  Area, Agbani, Enugu State.  The objective f the study is also to find out through sample survey whether the teenager are really getting sufficient information about aids so as to enable them inform their opinion about the diseases.  The study gives account of the sex, marital status, occupational variables that were of relevance to the study.  The researcher use questionnaire method in execution of the study.  This no doubt helps on collecting information as to the way people generally perceived the disease AIDS its wave to Nigeria since the mid 1980s.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER ONE

1.0              Background of study

1.2              Statement of the research problems

1.3              Objective of the study

1.4              Research   question

1.5              Research hypothesis

1.6              The   scope  (delimitation)  of  the  study

1.7              Significance   of the  study

1.8              Definition   of  terms

1.9              Theoretical  framework

CHAPTER TWO                

2.1              Source of literature

2.2              The   review

2.3              Aids:  social   implications  of  the   campaign   against   AIDS

2.4              Factor   intercepting   the  campaign  relevant

2.5              Media   impact   on   audience

2.6              The   media   attitude  change

2.7              Campaign   against   aids; strategies   and   dimension

2.8              Summary   of   literature  review

CHAPTER THREE

3.0              Research method

3.1              Research  design

3.2              Area  of  study

3.3              Measuring   instrument

3.4              The  population   of   study

3.5              Sample   and   sampling   technique

3.6              Data  collections

3.7              Data   analysis

3.8              Validity  of    the  instrument

3.9              Reliability  of    instrument

CHAPTER FOUR   

4.1       Data analysis and result

4.2  Data   analysis

CHAPTER FIVE                                        

Summary and Recommendation

5.1              Summary

5.2              Conclusion

5.3              Recommendations

5.4              Limitation  of  study

Questionnaire

References

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1              BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

The media has been established can provide for audience member a” definition of the situation” on a variety of issues. By emphasizing certain topics the mass media create some distorted impressions with their “definition” portraying a reflection of the red society. For example if sexual promiscuity regularly portrayed as widely practiced, an individual would define his own behaviour in such a situation as norms internalized. This would guide his conducts.Mass Media Campaign

Simply by their presence, the mass media have altered the nature of societal communication norm. large audience have been created that expect the media to provide commentaryy and other message people depend on the media for various forms of gratification based upon content. If denied such communication, they feel deprived.

(Benelson, 1950, 889-898) Even in relatively underdeveloped societies population quickly develop .media related habit once mass communication become available to them in form they understand.

People become aware of events outside their immediate experience.

People according to Walter Lippman (1922) act upon basis of ”the pismires in our head rather than the reality of the world outside.Mass Media Campaign

We have learned through research that he images and worlds the media carry. television, radio and newspapers” determines within the limitation posed by interviewing factors, open of people and their action.Mass Media Campaign

It is believed that in the imperfect world, there is no single antidote to human ills but publicity is often a vital step to findings the cure for many social ills. In this line therefore, it is believed that extensive impact of media and ture information on the AIDS campaign will read and perhaps touch on the sexual habit of people. When a disease is sexually transmitted, the publicity and effort to eradicate.Mass Media Campaign

It is fortified, AIDS is the worst disease to hit human race since the black league of the 114thcentury already caught this awful disease and do not know it, and might not know it for years. (Van impe: 1989: pg 1)

1.2              STATEMENT OF RESEARCH PROBLEM

The role of mass media in any society cannot be over emphasized. It goes  beyond the ordinary art and  science of news gathering and dissemination to shaping opinion and attitudes of people via proper and accurate analysis and interpretation of news evens. Through their information, education, entertaining and socializing function of mass media impact peoples attitude and behaviour (Grahamen Mython 183:32).Mass Media Campaign

The mass media set agenda for public discussion by chronicling news events with  the society. The mass media, no doubt, has changed or altered our culture. News products, advertised to millions via television, magazines, radio and newspaper can achieve wide spread addition almost overnight.Mass Media Campaign

The rapid spread of other culture forms, such as speech mannerism, fades of all kinds, and other invocative patterns, can be trigged by the media.Mass Media Campaign

Different mass media are effective at different pints in different ways. The mass media only create awareness while the face to face communication (Eahle et at 19709:29)

This implies that the mass media short coming which do not produce their effectiveness n matter how minimal at bringing a about axial change. Lazars field and Katz radio television and print topopinion leaders and form them to the less active section of the population it therefore means that these who can not be reached by the three media could benefit from interpersonal flow of information or the innovation. -Field and Katz 1955)

Macgurire (1969) Observed that the measured impact of the mass media as regard persuasiveness seems quite slight. A tremendous among the applied research has carried out to test the effectiveness of the news media massage. The out come which he said been quite embarrassing for proponents of mass media.Mass Media Campaign

In view of this perceived short coming. It therefore becomes very necessary to take  a hard work at the role of the mass media campaign against aids vis –a-vis their impact among the teenagers in Enugu state.Mass Media Campaign

However, research is a systematic search of knowledge the media of which a primarily to find solution to existing problems. Proper identification of  a problem determines the direction of the study.  Therefore,  the  problems  this  research  work  aims   at  solving  are:

a.  To  determine   the   major   sources  of   information    regarding    to   AIDS.

b.  the   impact  o  exposure   to  AIDS  campaign   among   teenagers  of   Agbani   in   Nkanu   Local  government   area,   in  Enugu  state

1.3              OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

EFFECT OF THE CAMPAIGN AGAINST AIDS

1.                  The primary aim of this study is to examine the extent of which mass media campaign against AIDS has affected and influence attitude and behavioural change towards sex.Mass Media Campaign

2.                  Influence of Mass Media Message

Influence here will therefore be regarded as the ability of the campaign against AIDS to induce the teenagers to change their behaviours to sexual promiscuity and help them also know more about AIDS and suggestion preventive measure.Mass Media Campaign

3.                  Interest of the Audience

The study is interested in the audience ie the teenagers.  Do their sex and age affect the way they perceived the message?  Are they really getting the information (Exposure) or has their level of education got something to do with their behaviour and attitudes to sexual matters.

1.4              RESEARCH QUESTION

1.      Do people get most information about AIDS through the mass media?

2.      Does campaign against AIDS  related  to  the   use   of  condom   during   sexual   intercourse   amongst   teenagers  reduced separation of the disease?

3.      Does exposure against AIDS campaign discourage teenagers from sexual promiscuity

4.      Do teenagers who are single exposed themselves to campaign against AIDS more then married ones?

1.5              RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS

Hi:  Most    respondents  will  get  information  about   AIDS   from   the  mass   media   more     than  other  source.

Ho: Most    respondents  will   not  get  information  about   AIDS   from   the  mass   media   more     than  other  source.

H2: Teenagers who are exposed to the campaign against AIDS are likely use condom  or    abstain from sex  than   those   who  are  not.

Ho: Teenagers who are exposed to the campaign against AIDS are not likely use condom and abstain from sex than   those   who   are  not.

H3: Exposure against AIDS campaign, discourage teenagers from sexual promiscuity.

Ho: Exposure  to   campaign    against AIDS does not discourage teenagers from sexual promiscuity.

H4: Teenagers who are single expose themselves to the campaign against AIDS more than  teenagers   who   are  married.Mass Media Campaign

Ho: Teenagers who are single will   not expose themselves to the campaign against AIDS more than   teenagers  who  are  married.Mass Media Campaign

1.6              SCOPE OF THE STUDY

As a result of poor funding, time constraints and convenience, the study shall be limited to teenagers in Enugu state university and is environs.Mass Media Campaign

The researcher hope that through the use of questionnaire and scientific sampling techniques, the results of the study will be generalized to the larger population.Mass Media Campaign

1.7              SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

It is envisaged that the out coming of the study will help to alert the teenagers population on the  dangers inherent in AIDS and equally contribute to existing literature in the area of mass media  impact.Mass Media Campaign

Also the study will help health ministry to determine which of the mass media  to employ in disseminating AIDS information.

Above all, it is hoped that the study will further equip mass media practitioners, communication experts and researchers to come up with at concrete and more futuristic approach to coverage all manners of campaign without much do in Nigeria.

1.8              DEFINITION OF TERMS

The   operational  and   Conceptual  definition   of  terms   in   the  study:

Operational   definition  

Mass   media

In the context, refer to various communication channels (specifically a radio, television and newspaper) through which information regarding campaign   against   AIDS communicated to teenagers in   Agbani ,   Nkanu   local   government   area   of  Enugu   state.Mass Media Campaign

AIDS

The   four  letter   AIDS   stands   for  are:   Acquired   immune  deficiency  syndrome .  the  word   immune   refers  to  the  defense   system  of  the  body  which   helps  the  body  to  fight  all  kinds  of  infections .   This   system  does  not  work  well in campaign  against    AIDS.

Those   attempt   through  the  radio  television   and   newspapers  aimed  at   curbing   further    spread   impact.

The  range   of  data  report  of  new   death  by   the   media. Mass Media Campaign

Sex:

Sexual  activities   amongst    teenagers,  men  and  women   or   man  and   man  (homosexual )  in    Enugu  state.

Young   men  and  women  in  Agbani,  Enugu   state. Both   indigene  and   non  -  indigene   who   are  between  the   age  of  15 -  40  year.Mass Media Campaign

 

Conceptual   Definition 

1.  Mass   Media:  it  is  the  media  where  masses,  audience  can  get  information  that   contains   emphasis  on  AIDS   programme.

2.   Media   Impact:   media   impact   on  AIDS   has  to  do  with   public   opinion,  policy,  peoples   comprehensiveness  and  proper   application  and  implementation   of   journalism    by   journalists.

3.  AIDS:  As   a  deadly   infection  disease

4.  Campaign   against  AIDS:  series   of  planned n  information  to  publicize   AIDS    and  its preventive   measures.

5.  Sex

The  activities  surrounding,  centering  on  sexual  perversion   and  leading  to  coitus .

6.  Teenagers:

Is  collectively   of  young  men  and  women

 

1.9              THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

For suitable theoretical framework for the study, the researcher applied the two way symmetrical method” thus was propounded in 1984 by cunning and Hurt in their book.

Mass media campaign against HIV/AIDS.

According to Nwosu (1996) theory stress on using mass media to disseminate the menace of AIDS on teenagers through sexual relationship and how it can be avoided either in the overall mass media programmes or specific mass media project through mutually two way communication with inbuilt feedback between an organization (mass media) and its public (teenagers).

No mass media operates in isolation and by so doing is affected by what communication, mass media can properly manage their relationships with their varies public.