GROUNDWATER PROBLEMS CAUSED BY IRRIGATION WITH SEWAGE EFFLUENT

Irrigation


Abstract

Abstract Increasingly, sewage effluent will be used for urban and agricultural irrigationi. The main concern is the potential for infectious diseases in farm workers and city dwellers exposed to the effluent, as well as in people who consume crops irrigated with effluent, especially when those crops are eaten raw or brought raw into the kitchen. Prevention requires adequate disinfection of the effluent.

The effluent also must meet normal irrigationi water requirements for parameters such as salt content, sodium adsorption ration, trace elements, and so forth. Unfortunately, little or no attention is paid to long-term effects of sewage irrigation on underlying groundwater, Since most of the water applied for irrigationi in dry climates evaporates, the concentrations of non-biodegradable chemicals in the drainage or deep-percolation water going down to the groundwater can be much higher than in the effluent itself (about five times higher for an irrigation efficiency of 80 percent).

These chemicals comprise not only the salts, nitrates, and possible pesticide residues normally expected in irrigated agriculture, but also "sewage chemicals" like synthetic organic compounds, disinfection by-products, pharmaceuticals and pharmaceutically active chemicals like endocrine disrupters, and fulvic and humic acids. These acids are known precursors of disinfection by-products that are formed when the drainage water ends up in drinking-water supplies that are then chlorinated. thus, groundwater below sewage-irrigated areas eventually may become unfit for drinking, which raises questions of liability. More research on long-term effects of sewage irrigation on groundwater is urgently needed.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Cover Page – – – – – – – – – –
Title Page – – – – – – – – – –
Certification – – – – – – – – – –
Dedication – – – – – – – – – –
Acknowledgement – – – – – – – – –
Abstract – – – – – – – – – –
Table of Content – – – – – – – – –
Chapter One: Introduction
Background of the Study – – – – – –
Statement of the Problem – – – – – –
Objectives of the Study – – – – – – –
Research Questions – – – – – – –
Research Hypotheses – – – – – – –
Significance of the Study – – – – – – –
Scope/ Limitation of the Study – – – – – –
Definition of Terms – – – – – – –
Chapter Two: Review of Related Literature
2.1 Introduction – – – – – – – – –
2.2 Conceptual Framework – – – – – – –
2.3 Theoretical Framework – – – – – – –
2.4 Empirical Review – – – – – – – –

Chapter Three: Research Methodology
3.1 Introduction – – – – – – – –
3.1 Research Design – – – – – – – –
3.3 Area of the Study – – – – – – – –
3.4 Population of the Study – – – – – – –
3.5 Sample Size and Sampling Techniques – – – –
3.6 Instrumentation – – – – – – – –
3.7 Validation of the Instrument – – – – – –
3.8 Administration of the Instrument – – – – –
3.9 Method of Data Analysis – – – – – – –

Chapter Four: Presentation, Analysis and Interpretation of Data
4.1 Introduction – – – – – – – – –
4.2 Presentation and Analysis of Data – – – – –
4.3 Testing of Hypotheses – – – – – – –
4.4 Discussion of Findings – – – – – – –
Chapter Five: Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations
5.1 Introduction – – – – – – – – –
5.2 Summary – – – – – – – – –
5.3 Conclusion – – – – – – – – –