FACTORS INFLUENCING EFFECTIVE IMPLEMENTATION OF COOPERATIVE EDUCATION IN IMO STATE

ABSTRACT


The research provides an appraisal of the factors influencing effective implementation of cooperative education in imo state . It provides a theoretical  study of the concept of cooperative education and its significance while elucidating  key players in the  implementation process.The research  is particularly important as it depicts a fundamental dimension in educational learning.

INTRODUCTION

Cooperative Learning (CL) is the umbrella term for a variety of educational approaches involving joint intellectual effort by students, or students and teachers together, (Smith and MacGregor, 1992:10). It requires a small number of pupils to work together on a common task, supporting and encouraging each other to improve their learning. Types of CL vary from Student Team Achievement Division (STAD) (Slavin, 1983), where pupils work in teams to ensure that all members have mastered the objective. Pupils then take individual tests on the material and scores are averaged for teams. Another form, Group Investigation, isa problem solving approach which has four elements: investigation, interaction, interpretation and intrinsic motivation (Sharan, 1994). Jigsaw, (Aronson et al, 1978)involves each member of a group learning an essential part of a whole of a topic by working with a focus group and then helping the home group to combine the knowledge to complete the task. The Structural Approach, (Kagan, 1994) consists of structures, or social interaction sequences, which enable the teacher to transform existing lessons into a co-operative format by using simple strategies. These strategies, or structures, are content-free mechanisms and are widely transferable across the curriculum; an example being, think-pair-share, where pupils are asked a question, given time to think, then they discuss with a partner before sharing with the class. Regardless of the specific format, researchers generally agree on two features essential to cooperative learning: positive interdependence and individual accountability (Cooper and Mueck, 1992; Slavin, 1992; Smith et al 1992; Cottell and Millis, 1992.Cooperative education (or co-operative education) is a structured method of combining classroom-based education with practical work experience. A cooperative education experience, commonly known as a “co-op”, provides academic credit for structured job experience. Cooperative education is taking on new importance in helping young people to make the school-to-work transition, service learning, and experiential learning initiatives. Cooperative education is also the use of active participation methods in which students learn how to work together to solve problems, this is normally founded on the principles of children’s rights, equality, equity and participation in decision-making. Its methods include game playing, expressing opinions, democratic participation, sharing, ensuring students all have an equal opportunity to take part, and conflict resolution.

1.1       BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Providing full, practical and solid knowledge of taught subjects in diverse fields of academic Is essential for the overall wellbeing of the student.Hence the need to provide a research of this nature.Co operative Education Program” means a program which alternates periods of academic study with periods of work experience in appropriate fields of business, industry, government, social services and the professions in accordance with the following criteria:each work situation is developed and/or approved by the co-operative educational institution as a suitable learning situation;the co-operative student is engaged in productive work rather than merely observing;the co-operative student receives remuneration for the work performed;the co-operative student’s progress on the job is monitored by the co-operative educational institution;the co-operative student’s performance on the job is supervised and evaluated by the student’s co-operative employer;the time spent in periods of work experience must be at least thirty per cent of the time spent in academic study.School-to-work and service learning have also been promoted as ways to link theory and practice through meaningful experiential learning experiences.furco 1996outlines the similarities between school-to-work and service learning. Although school-to-work, service learning, and co-op have different goals, each of his points also applies to cooperative education:Based on the philosophy that learners learn best through active engagement in meaningful activities,View of students as active learners and producers of knowledge,Use of such instructional strategies as contextual learning and application of knowledge to real situations,Requirement for schools to establish formal partnerships with outside entities,Concern for integrating school experiences and external experiences

1.2    DEFINITION OF THE PROBLEM

The importance of cooperative education cannot be over emphasized as it affords the student a perfect understanding of the subject both theoretically and practically.however its adoption and effective implementation is essential to realize  its objectives. The problem confronting the research is to determine factors influencing effective implementation of cooperative Education in imo state

1.3 RESEARCH QUESTION

1 What is the nature of cooperative education

1        What is the essesntial factors influencing effective implementation of cooperative Education

2        What constitute the factors influencing effective implementation of cooperative education in imo state

1.4  OBJECTIVE OF THE RESEARCH

1   To determine the nature of cooperative education

2   To appraise the essential factors for effective implementation of cooperative education

3        To  determine the factors influencing effective implementation of cooperative education in imo state.

1.5  SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The study shall elucidate the nature of cooperative education, its objectives and essential factors for its effective implementation.

It shall also serve a veritable source of information for educationist, teachers, lecturers and students.

1.6   STATEMENT OF HYPOTHESIS

1 Ho Cooperative Education in imo state is high

Hi  Cooperative Education in imo state is low

2 Ho The attainment of cooperative education objective in imo state is high

Hi  The attainment of cooperative education objective in imostate is low

3 Ho Factors influencing effective implementation of cooperative education in imo state is low

Ho Factors influencing effective implementation of cooperative education in imo state is high

1.7  SCOPE OF THE STUDY

The study shall provide a  theoritical appraisal of cooperative education , its objective ,limitation and  essential factors for its effective implementation.

1.8   DEFINITION OF TERMS

COOPERATIVE EDUCATION DEFINED

Cooperative education (or co-operative education) is a structured method of combining classroom-based education with practical work experience. A cooperative education experience, commonly known as a “co-op”, provides academic credit for structured job experience. Cooperative education is taking on new importance in helping young people to make the school-to-work transition, service learning, and experiential learning initiatives. Cooperative education is also the use of active participation methods in which students learn how to work together to solve problems, this is normally founded on the principles of children’s rights, equality, equity and participation in decision-making. Its methods include game playing, expressing opinions, democratic participation, sharing, ensuring students all have an equal opportunity to take part, and conflict resolution.

EDUCATION DEFINED

OLAWEPO(1997)opined that education is meant to coordinate the three aspects of human nature. He argued that one of the three aspects is the cognitive domain that is the mental partWhich includes perception, sensation, imagination, memory and thinking. This aspect should be coordinated by education in such a way as to make a balanced individual who can think right with adequate foresight and sensitivity to human feelings.