FACTORS PROMOTING EXAMINATION MALPRACTICE AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN IKPOBA OKHA LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF EDO STATE


ABSTRACT
Examination malpractice could in our time, involves students, parents, teachers school authorities, examination officials and law enforcement agents, all of who constitute a syndicate that perpetuates the crime. The high incidence of examination malpractice in our society is embarrassing. Its bizarre dimensions have probably not been recognized by the authorities. It is an extension of the problem of indiscipline, which is at the centre of the decline of our educational system. Infact, no other factors threaten to destroy the educational system as examination fraud. Many educationists feel that it is one of the most dangerous potholes on the nations road to educational breakthrough.
The purpose of this study was to find out factors promoting examination malpractices among secondary school students in some schools in Edo State: A case study of Ikpoba Okha Local Government Area. In carrying out the study a questionnaire was administered to students. The data collected from students were analyzed and interpreted from the results of the data that the factors promoting examinations malpractice is the strong desire to acquire certificate and the most frequent method used is copying and bringing in of textbooks to examination hall.
TABLE OF CONTENT
Chapter One
Introduction
Background of the study
Statement of the problem
Purpose of the study
Significance of the study
Scope of the study
Limitations of the study
Definitions of terms
Chapter Two
Literature Review
Chapter Three
Research instrument
Sample size
Method of data analysis
Chapter Four
Analysis and interpretation of data
Chapter Five
Summary, Recommendations and Conclusion
References
Questionnaire
CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Examination malpractice, which is a problematic phenomenon in our educational system, is the improper or illegal practice, immoral conduct according to the Webster’s comprehensive dictionary. Furthermore, examination malpractice is an illegal way which a student devices to pass an examination. This could be in form of bringing in notebooks to examination halls, cheating during examination, copying from friends, paying another person to help in writing the examination. Another way is to have foreknowledge of questions before the examination.
However, examination malpractice could be traced to the colonial days when Nigerian chronicle newspaper of January 9, 1992 widely reported how the questions of senior Cambridge local examination leaked. Although examinations are not only the yardstick for assessing knowledge, it is the major established yardstick and most practical way of assessment of education and ascertaining competence. However, the over dependency on certificates either legitimately or illegitimately in recent times in this country, the incidence of examination malpractices has witnessed increasing trends and this is invariably due to the candidates fear of failure, lacks of confidence, inadequate preparations, laziness and most of the times, inability to apply themselves to the tasks which they have come to do both in secondary and in the higher institution in the country. This bad habit has eaten very deep into our own society.
Students have perfected various forms of cheating in the examination. Some of the methods used in these malpractices include bringing foreign materials into the examination halls. These are designed to assist in passing the examination rather than relying on their own ability. These materials include textbooks; prepared materials written on the pylons, things and they come in various names such as hide and seek microchips, magic text etc. other unwholesome happenings inside and outside the examination halls include stealing of peoples work, converting or misappropriating the script of other candidates, substitution of script at the end of the examination papers only to complain later that their script are missing. There is also collusion between two or more candidates who usually agree before hand to sit and receive assistance from themselves. Impersonation is also very, very common in which a student who writes gets paid or sometimes gets coerced to go and sit for the real candidate in order to pass the examination on behalf of the other candidate. The continued flowering in the vice in the nations educational system has cost a debilitating darkness on the integrity of certificate Nigerians carry’s about, and infact examination fraud is being touted as the root cause of all other societal ills like 419 and other financial crimes in Nigeria. Although government over the years has given the impression that it lacks the will to implement the exam malpractice law No. 33 of 1999 which stipulates imprisonment of culprits. Our problem in the country is not restricted to 419; it is not restricted to financial crimes or bank fraud. If we want to tackle these problems from the roots, we need to go the examination malpractice.
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The act of cheating during examination has taken on the garb of an organized business venture, spinning millions of Naira yearly to the practitioners. The present situation forms one of the reasons why the quality and standard of education in Nigeria has fallen drastically some say beyond redemption. Besides those who are not measuring up academically posses the notion of cheat during examination in order to obtain there certificate by all means. These tendencies lead to examination malpractice. There is one danger that is peculiar with almost every student in Ikpoba Okha Local Government Area of Edo State nowadays; it is the problem of leakage of examination questions papers, which sometimes come through teachers, invigilators, and principals in order to obtain information about examinations. The problem is as a result of poverty or inadequate remuneration. Students collect large amount of money and give it to the examination officers so that examination papers can be leaked. Mass cheating is another dimension that examination malpractice has assumed. Nowadays, the whole thing has become much more sophisticated with the use of electronically assisted materials, calculators, palm tops (which are mini computers) are brought in unnoticed, organizers, small sized compact discs, mobile phones, though not allowed in examination hall, are smuggled in because messages could be text to them in the hall.
The purpose of this project is to investigate the factors promoting examination malpractice and suggest possible ways and means of eradicating the practices in schools. Until we are able to stop examination malpractice, the standard of education will continue to fall. Also if examination malpractice is not properly taken care of, the society is on its way to hell. Examination malpractice leads to perpetual condemnation of one’s conscience whereby the carrier of the fake certificate is constantly under the persecution of carrying something that is false.
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The purpose of this study is to:
1. To investigate the major factors promoting examination malpractice.
2. To examine the people involved in examination malpractice.
3. To find out the effect of examination malpractice on the students, teachers and the society in general.
4. To examine the measurement of recall or recognition of information and also to measure higher order outcomes defined in terms of more complex cognitive processes (e.g. understanding, synthesis, application).
5. To suggest possible solutions to the problem of examination malpractices.
6. To find out the measures taken by the government to control examination malpractice.
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study will help to shift emphasis from paper qualification to job experience by policy makers. It will also help the curriculum planners in Nigeria to protect the integrity of examinations. It will provide Ikpoba Okha local government area, school of sciences particularly college of Education, Ekiadolor Benin City and the Edo State Ministry of Information on antics students employ while perpetrating examination malpractice. It will also be helpful to examination bodies like West Africa Examination Council (WAEC), National Examination Council (NECO) and Joint Admission and Matriculation Board (JAMB) to be aware of examination malpractices and how it can be eliminated.
SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This study is mainly concerned with the causes of examination malpractice in Ikpoba Okha Local Government Area of Edo State. It covers the following schools, Western Boys High School, Army Day Secondary School, queen Ede College and Excel Secondary School. It includes one hundred students drawn fro each schools highlighted above. There are two single and two mixed schools.
DEFINITION OF TERMS
Factor: Any of the things that cause or influence something, it could be environmental/economical factors. It can also be such as the amount by which something increases or decreases.
Failure: Lack of success in doing or achieving something.
Fail: Not to succeed in something, especially examination.
Problem: A thing that is difficult to deal with or understand.
Promote: to help the progress of something.
Examination: A formal test of somebody’s knowledge or ability in a particular subject, especially by means of written questions or practical exercises. examination malpractice
Examine: To look to something/somebody carefully and in detail in order to learn something about it or from it/them, to inspect something or somebody closely. To test the knowledge or ability of somebody especially by asking questions or setting them practical tasks. examination malpractice
Malpractice: Careless, illegal or unacceptable behaviours by somebody in a professional or official position.
Investigate: To discover and examine all the facts about something, e.g. a crime or an accident in order to obtain the truth. To try to discover facts, information etc. e.g. by study or research. examination malpractice
Invigilate: To be present during an examination to make sure that it is properly conducted and that no one cheats.