ABSTRACT

This research is on the relevance of packaging in the marketing of consumer goods in Nigeria. We try to find out the packaging strategies, understand the meaning, possibilities advantages and effect of modern packaging structure in modern Nigeria market. This work coverers five chapter one deals with the introduction, background of study, statement of problems objective of the study, research questions statement of hypothesis etc chapter two originated with a literature review which talks about various approaches to the definition of packaging importance strategy social influence etc. chapter three deals with the research methodology, research design population of the study etc  chapter four explained the presentation analysis of data and discussion of the findings. While chapter five is all about the summary of findings, research of the problem, recommendation, implication of the study and bibliography.

CHAPTER ONE

Advertising is as diverse as less marking parent it occupies a very high position in the marketing configuration advertising is one of the sub-elements of the promotion element of the marketing mix of product, price, promotion and please it is subsumed in marketing communication. The chambers English dictionary define adverting as the act of giving notice of something or net of giving public information about merit claimed. Also the America marketing association defines advertising as any paid from of non-personal presentation and promotion of ideas or service by an identified sponsor. Advertising basically as a marketing tool and means of communicating the viability of products and communicating the availability of products and service to the general public. Dunn and Barban (1978:4) State that almost  everyone admits that advertising is a vigorous often obstructive form of communication that influences us both directy and indirectly in defining advertising. Durn and Barban (1978:4) argues that advertising is paid non-personal communication through various media by business firms. Non-profit organizations and individuals who are in some way identified in the advertising message and who hope to inform or persuade members of particular audience in the main, the ultimate purpose of advertising is to announce the arrival availability. Benefits and price of products or services with a view to selling it. There are primary and selective advertising by primary advertising, we mean that type of advertising that aims at promoting demand for genetic products or services of the entire industry or organization. On the other hand selective advertising promotes demand for a particular product of a company or firm. Another differentiating factor is that primary advertising if often used by organsations so as to attract patronage for their range of products as in the case of Unilever Nigeria Plc on sponsoring say football tournaments or other sporting events. This is done on order to stimulate demand for their products by consumers. Selective advertising can be used to maintain an established brand selective advertising is also called direct action advertising can be used to maintain an established brand. Selective advertising is also called direct action advertising for instant. The Imo detergent action advertisement during the Nigeria Television Authority (NTA) Network special programmes e.g supervisory. In such reference is always made about the price of the product or service 80 advertised.

There is also another type of advertising called institutional advertising. This type of advertising is geared towards creating favourable impressing of an organization in the mind of the society or business community rather than the products or services such as an organization produces the advertising message here is centered on the organization name advertising as an economic activity has been with us right from the ancient times. In ancient Egypt, Geece and Rome there were advertisement poster, paintings, signboards and drawings on the walls of buildings about products of different kinds (Age et al 1982). Also during this period vendors of different products carried their waves along announcing the availability of such product just like today’s hawkers. This was advertising at its rudimentary and crude level. Until nineteenth century advertising played an insignificant role on conducting of business. Business transactions were based on personal selecting at this period when Johnann Guttebery invention the printing press in about 1440 hanbius posters and then newspapers were used to advertise goods and services. Advertising was at its miniature stage until advertisings appeared in Newspaper in America (sand ega and try Burger,1763) But this new development was limited owing to the low level of trade. However form 1840 the volume of advertising increased as the volume of trade increased. When in the 1920s radio broadcasting established its presence in its united states of America broadcast advertising reared its head and thus enhanced trade. About two decades after the invention of radio, television appeared and consequently increased broadcast advertising and later stole the lead from radio Zingler and Howard (1984:10-11) stresses the place of America asserting that televisions gross advertising revenues were totaling approximately seventy-five percent of broadcastings total receipts, the remaining twenty-five  was spent on radio situation could be the same or other countries. Television has since then dominated the broadcast advertising which was formally monopolized by radio ,the main purpose of advertising is to affect the psyche of the people with the sole aim of drawing item towards a particular good or service. Ikechukwu Nwosu (1990) defines advertising as mass communication which is aimed at helping to sell goods services ideas, person and institutions or organizations. Many modes are used on the processs of advertising thus we have print advertising comprising newspapers, magazine, journals, billboard or outdoor and mail order and broadcast advertising comprising radio television advertising which has on a way echipsed all other types of advertising. This is because in the television medium sound colour and motion are combined which the other media lack. Modern advertising started in Nigeria on 1929 with the establishment of West African publicity limited (WAP) by United African Company (U.A.C) West African Publicity concentrated in placing posters and other advertising products exported to West African by British publicity manufactures on newspapers like the daily times the newspapers increased their readership.

There by creating ——— for increased advertising of products radio broadcasting was introduced into the country in 1932. But the impact was not feit until 1959 when the Western regional government of Nigeria under the premiership of the Late Chief Obafemi Awolowo established the first television station in black African, thus television advertising was born, the eastern and northern regional government followed the western region on establishing television and radio station in 1960 and 1962 respectively the federal government of Nigeria established her own television station in April 1962 known as the Nigeria Television Service (NTS) in Victoria island, Lagos. Since then there has been a steady increase of television stations on the country. According to Amechi (1991:5) as at 1991 there were about thirty-nine television stations but on the recent years there has been an increase on the number and Nigeria should have over 60tv stations like ATI, Silverbird etc have sprung and are now competing with consumer attention with the largely government owned television stations that dominate the broadcast landscape in Nigeria audience size has also increased tremendously and this in turn has increased the advertising volume.

Advertisers have discovered on television a variable medium for selling their goods services and ideas as the Nigeria economy becomes more industrialized and complex. Television as the faster growing advertising medium on the world today has the best appeal concurring to this view seigler and Howard (1984:17) State that most important of course is the visual components which permits the transmission of sight motion and colour on an instantaneous basis through television advertisers can demonstrate product focusing attention on their most visually appealing attributes and emphasizing packages and corporate logos through close-up camera shots with both visual and sound capabilities television comes closer to the ideal of person-to-person salesmanship then any other mass medium the unique and strength of television lie on its ability to combine many of the functions performed singly by other media put together.

Television advertising can create drama. Suspense and emotion. It is powerful behavior shaping and modifying force. Because it combines visual and auditory stimuli with movement and drama. It has the power to arrest attention generate interest inform and teach by illustration and example. Television advertising has a dynamic vitality and an enormous capacity to attract and hold large audiences. Thus for television advertising to be effective and achieve its objectives. There shall be information. Stimulus values and emphasis. This is because information is news while stimulus values provokes a customer to evaluate judge the reach a decision to single out a particular product from all other advertising messages surrounding them the ultimate purpose of television advertising is to affect the way television advertising viewers think and act their behavioural patterns with the ultimate goal of selling a product or service Unilever Nigeria Plc makers of blue Imo detergent as one of the leading organizations producing consumer products has employed television advertising extensively to sell its range of product.

1.1  HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

The company Unilever Nigeria Plc is a member of Uniliever group a multinational corporation Unilever is one of the largest products of consumer goods on the world. It has over five hundred affiliate companies in about seventy countries carrying out a wide range of business activities. Unilever Nigeria Plc was established in Nigeria in 1923 under the name west Africa soap company limited the name was changed to lever brothers Nigeria Limited thirty-two years later in compliance with the 1977 indigenization decree sixty percent of its equity shares are held by Nigerians leaving forty percent to Unilever, lever brothers Nigeria Limited merged with Lipton a tea manufacturing company in July 1985 marking Lipton part of the food and drinks division of lever brothers which has invariably enhanced the company activities in the food and drinks industry with the 1989 amended company decrees. Lever brothers Plc. The company is quoted in stock exchange markets and now bears the name Unilever Nigeria Plc, the company head office principal factory and Lipton divisions are located in Apapa Lagos where soaps such as Asepso, Lux and astral brands are manufactured. Here the company manufactures Omo, Vim and food drinks such as Roy Co. tree top-squash, tea and coffee and personal care product like close-up tooth paste, pepsodent toothpaste and astral cream, the company’ second factory  is situated at Abia. The commercial never center of Abia State where soaps such as sunlight lifebury and key brands are manufactured Omo a non-soapy detergent is also manufactured Unilever Nigeria Plc has its third and ultra-modern factory situated at Agbara industrial estate Ogun State where adibles such as blue band and planta margarines as well as bread and marva which serve the bakery industry are produced in the main Unilever Nigeria Plc produces about twenty four brands of consumer goods in about fifty-six pack sizes. The company has consistently won standard organization of Nigeria.

1.2  STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Television as a medium of communication gained importance on the marking of products services persons ideas and corporate entities it has become a prime medium with its motive force of sight sound spectacle colour and motion yet most television viewers do no know the extent of the influence television has them in their purchase behaviour the study is therefore undertaken out of the concern that television viewers on Owerri L.G.A may not be adhere of the effects television advertisement has on them in their purchase of detergents such as Omo recent observation has show that detergents come under the genetic name Omo this study then will determined whether the real product Omo is consumed or not on Owerri urban and environs. It is not certain whether the television advertisement of Omo is responsible for this from available  literature there has not been any attempt to find out or ascertain the effects or impact of television viewer ship and consumers on Owerri there are also the problem of establishing if the Omo detergent television advertisement has been able to title some potential consumers disposition towards Omo detergent this is predicated on the factor that the news adjacency of Omo television advertisement exposes it to some if not the estimated 50 million viewers of the Nigeria Television Authority (NTA).

1.3  OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

Prime objectives of this work is to find out the effects and impact of television advertisement on consumers of Omo detergent in Owerri in specific terms we shall find out the following.

  1. i) Whether television viewers in Owerri are influenced by television advertisement.
  2. ii) To find out what aspect of Omo television advertisement that influenced television viewers most.

iii)   To establish whether are aspects of Omo television advertisement the input item off.

  1. iv) To find out the effects of Omo television advertisement vis-à-vis other Omo advertisement on other media on the behaviour of consumers in Owerri.
  2. v) In the light of foregoing to suggest ways on which Omo television advertisement could be improved on other to enhance the effect on consumers.

1.4  RESEARCH QUESTIONS

Answers to the question before would lead to the situation of the problem.

1)    What extent has planning and control has positively affected the organization.

2)    What are the principal, producers and the steps on which planning and control should be based on order to arrive at a cause of action that will lead to specific goal?

3)    What are the major tools for planning and control.

4)    What are the problems affecting planning and control on business organization.

5)    To what extent will proper planning and control reduce business failure and distress?

1.5  SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY

The wife of every corporate organization is primaring dependent on the good will of consumers who patronize its products the attitude of consumers to a product or service determines whether or not that product will stay in the market consequent upon this. The study will be of great importance to Unilever Plc markets of Omo detergent will regards to Owerri market Imo State on particular and Nigeria on general when advertising Omo detergent. It is also expected to be of immense importance to markets of other  brands of detergent on the country as it will help them determine the best way to advertise and opposition their own product the study will also be help to research firms, advertising practitioners and research students on advertising and marketing on the area of consumer behaviour it will also be of help to marketing and media planners on corporate bodies involved in the manufacture of detergents when buying air time for the advertisement of their product.

1.6  SCOPE OF THE STUDY

During the course of undertaking the research product, the researcher encountered some extraneous variable which hindered the force colours of the work. The information generated from staff of Pz industries (Nig) Plc book and journals some of the factors include.

  1. a) Time Constraint: Due to the nature of the study, the time allocated to it was not sufficient which could not accord the research the opportunity to cover some organizations that are concerned to this research.
  2. b) Finance: Inadequate finance was a major tridi capped to recovery faster. This research project this was as a result of the huge transport cost involved on the collection of information necessary for the work.
  3. c) Accessibility: During the course of this research project the researcher found it difficult to have access to the population of interest and as a result, not all the desired information was collected since extensive visit was not also made.
  4. d) Fear of Information dissemination by the respondents: Most of the respondent were unable and afraid to be involved on information dissemination by not given accurate information.

1.7  LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

During the course of undertaking this research project, the researcher encountered some extraneous variable which mindered the free flows of the work. The information were generated from staff of Pz industries (Nig) Plc book and journals some of the factors include:

1)    Finance:  Inadequate finance was a major ridi capped to recovery faster. This research project this was as a result of the huge transport cost involved on the collection of information necessary for the work.

2)    Time Constraint:  Due to the nature of the study, the time allocated to it was not sufficient which could not accord the researcher the opportunity to cover some organizations that are concerned to this research.

3)    Accessibility: During the course of this research project the researcher found it difficult to have access to the population of interest and as a result, not all the desired information was collected since extensive visit was not also made.

4)    Fear of Information dissemination by the respondents: Most of the respondent  were unable and afraid to be involved on information dissemination by not given accurate information.

1.8  DEFINITION OF TERMS

1)    A consumer: He is an individual who buys goods or has the capacity to buy goods and services which are offered by marketing bodies or corporate entitiles so as to satisfy personal needs wants and desires.

2)    Advertisement: it is the message expressing the qualities of a particular product to the target audience.

3)    Advertising: This is the process of preparing the massage contained on an advertisement and the presentation of advertisement on the media.

4)    Consumer Behaviour:  This is an aspect of human behavour that has to do with actions involved on the purch as of goods and service for the satisfaction of human desires wants and needs.

5)    News Adjacency: This is the period before during and immediately after news in the radio or television for advertisement.

6)    Institutional Advertising: This is the kind of advertising that is so lecy for the creation of favourable impression of an organization or corporate body on the mind of the society or business community as opposed to advertisements on product and services this is more of public relations.

7)    Network Advertising:  This is the type of advertising that cuts across the whole country.

8)    Regional Advertising: It is the type of advertising that is limited to a particular region in part of country.

9)    Primary Advertising: This is that type of advertising that arms at promoting demand for genetic products or services of the entire corporate body.

10)  Selective Advertising: This is the type of advertising that promotes demand for particular product of an industry or firm. It is also known as direction advertising.



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