EFFECTIVE USE OF A TROPICAL HOP NAMED BITTER LEAF [VERNONIA AMYGDALINA] EXTRACT AS A MEANS OF EXTENDING THE SHELF – LIFE OF LOCALLY BREWED MILLET BEER.

EFFECTIVE USE OF A TROPICAL HOP NAMED BITTER LEAF [VERNONIA AMYGDALINA] EXTRACT AS A MEANS OF EXTENDING THE SHELF – LIFE OF LOCALLY BREWED MILLET BEER.

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BITTER LEAF


CHAPTER ONE
1.0 Introduction-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1.1 Aim of study / Project------------------------------------------------------------------ CHAPTER TWO
2.0 Literature Review-----------------------------------------------------------------------
2.1 General Description of Cereal Crops-------------------------------------------------
2.2 Origin of Millet and its distribution------------------------------------------------
2.2.1 Botanical [Scientific classification] -------------------------------------------------
2.2.2 Diseases and Pest of Pearl Millets----------------------------------------------
2.2.3 Grain Composition and Nutritive value-----------------------------------------
2.2.4 Other Uses of Pearl Millet-------------------------------------------------------
2.3 Origin and Distribution of Sorghum------------------------------------------------
2.3.1 Botanical[Scientific Classification] -------------------------------------------------
2.3.2 Grain Composition of Sorghum---------------------------------------------------
2.3.3 Other Uses of Sorghum------------------------------------------------------------
2.4 Hops-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.4.1 Other Uses of Hops---------------------------------------------------------------
2.5 Bitter leaves Juice and its role-----------------------------------------------------
2.5.1 Botanic Classification of Bitter leaves--------------------------------------------
2.5.2 Composition of Bitter leaves--------------------------------------------------------
2.6 Yeast--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.6.1 Origin and Distribution of Yeast--------------------------------------------------
2.6.2 Composition of Yeast--------------------------------------------------------------
2.6.3 How Yeast is Prepared--------------------------------------------------------------
2.7 Water-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.8 Clarifying agent-----------------------------------------------------------------------
2.9 Adjuncts---------------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.10 Biochemistry of brewing Process------------------------------------------------
2.10.1 Biochemistry of Malting------------------------------------------------------------
2.10.2 Biochemistry of Boiling------------------------------------------------------------
2.10.3 Biochemistry of Mashing-----------------------------------------------------------
2.10.4 Biochemistry of Souring------------------------------------------------------------
2.10.5 Biochemistry of Fermentation-----------------------------------------------------
2.11 Straining--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.12 Properties of Beer-------------------------------------------------------------------
2.12.1 Processes Involved in Beer Production-----------------------------------------
2.12.2 Lagering--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.12.3 Types of Beer------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.13 Preparation of Local Beer------------------------------------------------------------
2.13.1 Factors Affecting both Local and Modern Beer------------------------------
2.13.2 Alcoholic Content of Beer-------------------------------------------------------
2.13.3 Differences Between Local and Modern Beer---------------------------------
2.14 Packaging and Distribution--------------------------------------------------------
2.14.1 Spoilage--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.15 Importance of fermented Alcoholic Beverages--------------------------------- CHAPTER THREE
3.0 Materials and methods -----------------------------------------------------------------
3.0.1 Materials --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
3.0.1.1 Chemicals and Reagents -----------------------------------------------------------
3.0.1.2 Glass wares and equipments ------------------------------------------------------
3.1 Preparation of samples -----------------------------------------------------------------
3.1.1 Methods ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
3.1.1.1 Ingredients -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
3.1.2 Method used to prepared local millet beer -----------------------------------------
3.1.2.1 Method used to prepared aqueous extract of bitter leaf -----------------------
3.1.3 Method of chemical analysis -------------------------------------------------------
3.1.4 Total acidity ----------------------------------------------------------------------------
3.1.5 Fixed acidity ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
3.1.6 Volatile acidity--------------------------------------------------------------------------
3.2 pH determination------------------------------------------------------------------------
3.3 Specific gravity ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
3.4 Determination of Alcohol content ---------------------------------------------------
3.5 Total dissolved solid (TDS).-----------------------------------------------------------
3.6 Total suspended solid (TSS).----------------------------------------------------------
3.7 Microbial Count ------------------------------------------------------------------------
3.7.1 Procedure for culturing in the plate.-----------------------------------------------
3.7.2 Procedure for identification of the organisms ----------------------------------- CHAPTER FOUR
4.0 Results--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
4.1 Some Chemical Parameters------------------------------------------------------------
4.2 Total Acidity for local Millet Beer---------------------------------------------------
4.3 Fixed acidity for local Millet Beer -----------------------------------------------------
4.4 Volatile Acidity --------------------------------------------------------------------------
4.5 Specific Gravity of Millet Beer-------------------------------------------------------
4.6 pH value for local millet beer ------------------------------------------------------
4.7 Total dissolved solid.-------------------------------------------------------------------
4.8 Total suspended solid.-------------------------------------------------------------------
4.9 Ethanol Content for Bench Stored Millet------------------------------------------
4.10 Microbial Count for Bench Millet Beer------------------------------------------
4.10.1 Microbial Count for Freezed Millet Beer--------------------------------------
4.11 General Discussion of Results.-------------------------------------------------------

CHAPTER FIVE
5.0 Disadvantages Associated with Over Consumption of Brewed Beer-----------
5.0.1 Advantages associated with consumption of brewed beer----------------------
5.1 Conclusion--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
5.2 Recommendation-------------------------------------------------------------------------
5.3 Limitations of Study--------------------------------------------------------------------
5.4 References---------------------------------------------------------------------------------
5.5 Appendix A ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
5.6 Appendix B ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
5.7 Appendix C -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
5.8 Appendix D ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
5.9 Appendix E -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
LIST OF TABLES
Table 1:Some Chemical Parameters on Local Millet Beer-----------------------------
Table 2: Total Acidity for local Millet Beer----------------------------------------------
Table 3:Fixed Acidity for local millet beer. ---------------------------------------------
Table 4:Specific Gravity of Millet Beer---------------------------------------------------
Table 5:pH value.----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Table 6:Total Dissolved solid (TDS).-----------------------------------------------------
Table 7:Total Suspended solid (TSS).-----------------------------------------------------
Table 8:Ethanol Content of Millet Beer----------------------------------------------------
Table 9: Microbial Count for Bench Stored Millet Beer--------------------------------
Table 10: Microbial Count for Freezed Millet Beer-------------------------------------
Table 11:Total Microbial Count for both bench and Freezed Millet Beer ------------

LIST OF FIGURES
Fig.1: A Scheme of the Brewing Process------------------------------------------------
Fig.2: Flow Sheet of home Brewed Products---------------------------------------------
Fig 3: A Schematic Representation of Glucose Degradation
Under Aerobic and Anaerobic Condition-------------------------------------------------
Fig 4 : The Glycolytic Pathway -------------------------------------------------------------
Fig 5:The Pathway of Carbon atoms in Glycolysis and alcoholic Fermention----
Fig 6:Fermentation Scheme------------------------------------------------------------------
Fig 7: Flow Sheet for the Local Production of Millet Beer-----------------------------
CHAPTER ONE
1.0 INTRODUCTION.
Beer, alcoholic brewery made from a Cerael grains known as barley and Millet.A process called Fermentation in which Microscopic fungi known as yeast is used to consume sugers in the grains to make Beers,converting them to alcohol and carbondioxide gas.This chemical process typically produce beers with an adequate level of alcohol content of about 2-6%.Over an aggregate of 70 types of beer are available in the modern worlds todays.Each style of beer derives its unique characteristics and differences in its brewing process.Four basic ingredients are used in brewing,which includes;grains, hops,[bitterleaves as a hop’s substitute] Yeast and water,Grains like Millet contain the natural sugers required for fermentation.It also provides beer with flavour,colour,body and texture.Hops are small,green,cone-shaped flowers from the hop plant,a vine related to the nettle plant over 50 varieties of hops are grown throughout the world, mostly in Europe,Australia and North America.But the hops we want to used is bitterleave acting as hop’s substitute.It is mostly grown here in Africa.Hops provides the Beer with spicy, bitter flavour and contribute natural substances that prevent bacteria from spoiling beer. Two species of Yeast ;Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces uvarum and baker’s yeast.Each yeast species is used in a slightly different method of fermentation and produces a distinct type of beer. Throughout history, where ever Cereal grains were grown, Humans made beer with beverage for them. They used Barley in Egypt, Millet and Sorghum in other parts of Africa, beer brewing is a major industrial revolution world wide. In 2002,In the United States,1800brewers,produced almost 175 millions barrels of beer.Beer is deeply interlined in the fabric of Society, from the Economic to the intangible locally owned breweries deliver social values better than global companies. Since early times beer which is the products of brewing processes has played an important role in our society, It bring people together in local pubs and breweries generating Camaraderie within Communities. As technology has progress brewing techniques have been developed and refined. As a result, we are currently consuming the finest beers ever produced. This is due to our increased knowledge in the fields of Biotechnology, Microbiology, and Chemistry.
1.1 AIM OF STUDY / PROJECT