THE EFFECT OF ELECTRONIC FILM VIOLENCE ON THE BEHAVIOR OF YOUTHS IN ENUGU STATE
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The main thrust of this study is to find out the impact of TV film violence on the behavior pattern of youths, using Enugu state as a case study. In the course of this study, public opinion survey method was used which required the distribution of 398 copies of questionnaire to selected youths resident in Enugu state. The population of Enugu was 1,561,000, while the sample size for the study was 398, calculated. Using Taro Tamene formula. The two research hypothesis were tested and accepted. The analyzed data showed that protracted exposure to violence oriented film on TV has negative impact on the behavioral recommended that government should muster enough political will ban the importation of foreign films that are at variance without cultural values. It is further recommended that the Nigerian government should encourage Nigerians film makers to emphasize high standard in local films to replace the banned violence oriented foreign films.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.1 Background of the study
1.2 Statement of the research problems
1.3 Objectives of the study
1.4 Significance of the study
1.5 Research question
1.6 Research hypothesis
1.7 Theoretical frame work
1.8 Scope of the study
1.9 Limitation of the study
1.10 Definition of terms 9conceptual and operational)
2.1 Sources of literature
2.2 Concept of Tv film violence in Nigeria.
2.3 Advocacy against Tv film violence in Nigeria.
2.4 Summary of literature
3.1 Research method
3.2 Population and sampling population
3.3 Limitation of research method
3.4 Method of data collection
3.5 Sampling technique
3.6 Method of data analysis.
PRESENTATION AND INTERPRETATION OF FINDINGS.
4.1 Data presentation and analysis
4.2 Sample characteristics. And testing of hypothesis
4.3 Testing of Research Hypothesis
4.4 Discussion of result
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
LIST OF TABLE
- 1.1 Questionnaire distribution and collection
- 1.2 Sex distribution of respondents
- 1.3 Age distribution of respondents
- 1.4 Marital status distribution of respondents
- 1.5 Educational distribution of respondents
- 1.6 Occupational distribution of respondents.
- 1.7 Analysis of impact of TV programmes on youths
- 1.8 Calculation of impact of protracted exposure of violence oriented films on youth.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The mass media system is a device for delivering thought, information, knowledge, ideas and attitudes to a diversified audience. It has grown from the primitive signals and verbal communication to the present complex facilities. The mass media include printed words and pictures which can appeal to the sense of sight, radio which uses sound to transmit messages and television which uses both sound and pictures to communicate massages.
In our present complex society there is great dependence on the mass media for the transaction of business. However, the potential influence of mass media is shaping individual attitudes and behavior has become a subject of debate. Nevertheless, it is an irresponsible fact that media massage influence attitude shift both for good and bad depending on the content of the message.
In the same way, it has been established that the image used by mass media in communicating information to a mass audience, depending of course on the rate of exposure to a particular message.
Mass media are part of our environment therefore, their influence on the society have multiplied effect on the audience, depending of course on the rate of exposure to a particular massage. From childhood to adult life, mass media from part of our activities. Until a child enters school, electronic media, especially radio dominates and where television is available, a child makes use of it, perhaps for his entertainment, which dominates his childhood activities and in his process, creates a situation in which the child would start to cop or display the content of the message in a real life situation.
As the child develops into a young adult, what he has been watching or viewing from the childhood would crystallize into a deviant behavior which will be very difficult to erase from the consciousness of the youth.
Indeed, whatever program the media package for public consumption especially those on how members of the public consumption, especially those on how members of the society thinks, acts or talk. It is therefore, defensible that a violence oriented film shown on the screen is likely to influence someone to act the way the message was communicated, particularly when people see that some people get reward in a special way for acting according to the message.Film Violence
It has been established that likely violence oriented films or television has escalated campus violence among the youths, drug trafficking, armed robbery, prostitution, broken marriage among other similar society malaise.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE RESEARCH PROBLEM.
The problem of the study is that viewing violence oriented films on television seems to affect the behavior of youths in Nigeria. Films have a dramatic effect on the perception of viewers whether the person is conscious or unconscious of this fact for the process of any society. It is goo to b peaceful, eschewing violence and settling issues with dialogue and non violence means.Film Violence
Repeated exposure to violence tends to create stereo type in people minds and soon they unconsciously start to re-enact the same scenes they see in films. This type of situation creates problems for the society and if not properly handled may become a big problem for the society to grapple with. Controlling the influence of television films on our youths becomes the objective of the researchers work.Film Violence
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
- The objective of this study is to ascertain the extent of electronic film
violence on the behavior pattern of Nigerian youths. iolence here means the ability to any film shown on the television screen to depict a state which can be interpreted as influencing youths to behave in such a way that might constitute social problems to the family or society at large.
- The study is also interested in finding out why some youths have the tendency for violence.
- How do they learn such a behavior or is it in-born?
- Does exposure to violence originated films on television encourage negative behavior.
These are the main inquiry of the study.
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The result of this study will expose the dangers of youths indulgence in television film watching the violence oriented background which can influence them to follow the last lane of crime and criminal tendencies.Film Violence
Also, the study will help the authorities in Nigeria to devise effective ways so curb crimes in the country as well as check the flooding of Nigeria market with violence oriented films which have no relevance to our culture.
Above all, the study is intended to further equip media practitioners, communication experts and government about the need to censor property, the content of programmes, which television station in Nigeria air as most of the programs are capable of helping create behavioral deviance among the youths.Film Violence
1.5 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
- Do youths learn negative behavior through watching
violence oriented films on televisions?
- Does early exposure too violence oriented television
programmes has any impact on the way youths think, act or talk?
- Does frequent exposure to violence oriented film to television encourage crime in the society?
- Can government censorship mitigate showing violence oriented film on television?
1,6 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS.
Hi: consumption of violence oriented films on television engenders negative behavior in youths?
Ho: Consumption of violence oriented film on television does not engender negative behavior in youths.
H2: protracted exposure to violence oriented films on television encourages crimes in the society.
H0: H2: protracted exposure to violence oriented films on television does not encourage crimes in the society.
1.7 THEORETICAL FRAME WORK
The impact of electronic films violence on youths could be aptly captured by the powerful effect theory of mass communication. The bullet theory was derived from subtle stimulus which media message have on the audience and which compel them as it were, to behave the way the message was programmed.Film Violence
Lasswell (19270 asserted that any powerful message such as the mass media message can provoke a uniform reason or response from a given audience.Film Violence
The bullet or hypodermic theory of mass communication suggests that television films can influence youths to behave according to the content of the message. Recent survey of television films influence on Nigerian youths have shown that among people of similar and educational background, youth audience are more inclined towards watching violence oriented films on television than older members, the mass media audience.Film Violence
In addition, the studies pointed out that having choosing such all embracing channel of mass communication, a television, youths prefer more of entertainment and violence oriented programmes
Badura and Rose (1973) in other research findings conclude that people who watch aggressive films on television are likely to be aggressive than those who watch educational programmes on television.Film Violence
Skornia (1965) reported that in march 1964, Michael Gambrill, a nineteen year old American Marine on leave narrated that after watching horror movies on television, something came over him which caused him to kill his father and sisters with a hatchet.Film Violence
Fanon (1975) has written extensively on the negative consequences of controlled exposure to western culture. As if to echo fanon, “the sun of Columbia” 91981) noted that Indonesia leadership are concerned that western style television prgrammes could raise people aspiration for beyond what the government can help them attain, perhaps. leading to instability.Film Violence
JEMINE (1983) added a Nigerian perspective to the growing views on the negative influence of electronic films violence on youths. he stated that what is necessarily be good for Nigerians. He faulted policy makers and managers of Nigerian television and film industry because they permitted this powerful institution to serve for the past years, as an injection syringe of western poison into the Nigeria polity.Film Violence
He called for the use of more ingenious and educational films by the Nigerian television station.
1.8 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The scope of the study is to find out how violence oriented TV films affects the behavior of Nigerian youths.
Also, the study will look at the overall effects of Tv film violence on the society.
Because on the financial and time constraints, this study shall be focused on Enugu state. We have the sincere hope that the result of this study which will be derived from the use of generalized to a large population.
1.10 DEFINITION OF TERMS.
Conceptual: mass media: Means of communication information to a heterogeneous audience
Mass media: In this context, it refers to various communications channels such as radio, television and Newspaper, through which information can be transmitted to heterogeneous audience.
Messages; program on television screen which can be viewed by youths.
Television: An electronic device for message dissemination
Television: an electronic medium of mass communication which can be used to reach youths audience.
Film: a type of dramatized message which can have negative or positive effects on the youths on television than programmes like news events among others
Wish-fulfillment has been identified as one of the reasons why youths indulge in violence oriented films watching on television youths who expose themselves to violence oriented films on television screen wish that those things taking place on the screen were happening in a real life situation. Youths audience uses the programmes to fantasize about the lives of other people perhaps, their only environment is pleasant, drab or routine and they have neither the ability nor posing themselves to violence oriented films, viewers are given the opportunity to fantasize.
Perhaps, youths behavior towards violence oriented films on television could be termed crazy. However, from time to time other group of society’s population does indeed behave like people posed/in our dogged search for media content that would satisfy our needs, which seem to be currently or orally driving as crazy, mass media audience becomes addicted to one from of media content or the other.Film Violence
A research carried pout by Brown (1076) showed that youths are more attracted to television because of its multi functional dimension in given the youths varied satisfaction such as letting know how other people from various background and culture lives as well as giving them something to talk about with their friends.Film Violence
Also, a study by Aliu (1982) discovered that university of Lagos students tends to proper foreign films to Nigeria films. He noted that the students watch foreign films not just for entertainment but because choice of dressing pattern. He concluded that Nigerian University students are brain washed set of youths who thinks more of the transient and banal ideals of foreign culture than their own.Film Violence
At all events, Nigerian youths are not alone in this banal attachment to revenue oriented films that contribute little or nothing to the growing minds of youths. Mori 91983) noted that western music is particularly popular to the young people today in Japan because the western tradition music has becomes the Japanese Lingua France.
Many criticism have been leveled against films shown today on television. A Senegalese film maker Ousmene (1977) observed that films at times play a negative role in molding the minds of the young people. Majority of films shown on the screen as product of cultural alienation.Film Violence
Furthermore, Arg-Imoukhaude in his study of television film violence noted that many Nigerians companies of the poison content of film industry exist and that television can make a for a more effective contribution of natural development than they are making at present.Film Violence
He then preferred the way forward by suggesting that the development of television and films in African should be removed from the national agenda and entrusted with a separate like the African Union or the Economic Community of West African States(ECOWAS) and similar bodies in Africa.
However, results of study on the impact of electronic film violence on Nigeria youths have been inconclusive and polarized. For Instance, Himmerlweetm et al (1958) observed that television was unlikely to cause aggressive behavior in young people, although it could precipitate it in few young ones who are emotionally disturbed. But in another study carried out by Lovans (1973) a different conclusion was reached. he stated that viewing aggressive programmes on television could arouse aggressive impulse to some extent, in the minds of young people.