THE EFFECT OF DOMESTIC WASTE MANAGEMENT IN SOUTH WEST NIGERIA. ISSUES AND CHALLANGES
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TABLE OF CONTENT
1.0 Introduction 1
1.1 Background Information 1
1.2 Problem Statement 6
1.3 Research Objectives 7
1.4 Hypothesis 8
1.5 Significance of the Study 9
1.6 Scope of the Study 10
2.0 Literature Review
3.0 Research Methodology 30
3.1 Description of the Study Area 30
3.2 Research Design 30
3.3 Method of Data Collection 31
3.4 Data Limitation 31
3.5 Method of Data Analysis 32
3.5.1 Summative Approaches 32
3.5.2 Simple Percentage 33
3.5.3 Incremental Averages 34
3.6 Test of Hypothesis 34
4.0 Presentation of Data, Analysis of Data and Discussion of Findings 36
4.1 Data Presentation 37
4.2 Data Analysis 39
4.3 Discussion of Findings 41
4.4 Test of Hypothesis 45
5.0 Summary of Findings Conclusion and
5.1 Summary of Findings 47
5.2 Conclusion 48
Waste Management is a local and global concern. In reality, it is natural for waste to be generated. This does not pose any problem but the deficient capacity of individuals and government to strategically and sustainable manage these waste within the environment in which they are generated becomes an issue.
Solid wastes are referred to as waste which are neither liquid nor gaseous , generated through various daily human activities and are ultimately regarded as not useful. Solid waste could therefore be garbage, refuse, or sludge which are residues of liquid effluent. (Leton and Omotosho, 2004). It could also include refuse from households, non-hazardous solid waste from industrial and commercial establishments, refuse from institutions market waste, yard waste, and street sweepings (Alabi, 2004). Broadly, Household wastes otherwise known as residential or domestic wastes are made up of wastes that are consequences of household activities. These according to  include food preparation, sweeping, cleaning, fuel burning and gardening wastes old clothing, old furnishings retired appliances, packaging and reading materials. The problem of solid waste management is about the second largest issue after water quality in developing countries; (Senkoro, 2003). This is due to poverty, population explosion and high urbanization rate.
The immensely increasing waste generation has been witnessed by heaps of municipal solid waste (MSW) which has appeared indiscriminately all over the cities. These has therefore being linked to prominent factors such as increasing population that has been aggravated by rapid urbanization and industrialization, basically resulting into a significant increase in the volume of wastes generated and consequently, its management.
Solid waste management (SWM) is a multidimensional challenge faced by urban authorities in developing countries like Nigeria. Waste generation, collection and disposal is an innate or core part of any industrial or developing society.
Domestic waste management, collection and disposal have on its own global problem amongst other type of waste. According to studies, it was noted that for years, the major problem in Israel was the accumulation of tens of thousands of tons of organic wastes. This was also the case in the U.S until the 1970's when Federal Agencies had little authority to regulate hazardous and solid disposal by often taking in an unsafe manner at landfills or in inclined lagoons, with some wastes simply dumped on the ground or in surface waters. (references)
Domestic waste form about half of the solid wastes generated, that is, by weight in the third world cities (Adewole, 2009). Over the last ten years, both domestic and commercial sources of wastes have grown notably in Nigeria. For every shopping made per household, there is always a marginal addition of waste volume to the existing stockpile of waste at a given time. This shows the relativity of waste generation to the population of the society. It is therefore practicable to quote figures which depict that waste generation accrues to millions of tons. In the last 15 years, the rate of urbanization and migration has doubled in Nigeria (Jimoh, 2005). Current estimates in Nigeria reveals an annual solid waste generation of 25 million tones with an urban growth exceeding 6.5% per annum (Olukanni et al, 2013). The generation rate of municipal solid wastes in Ota metropolis, Ogun State, for instance , have increased at a disturbing rate over the years with lack of efficient and modern technology for the management of the wastes. This undeterring progressive rate at the long run, contributes to huge solid and liquid waste generation. It has also been noted that domestic waste disposal management has received considerable attention in Nigeria in general. Despite this commendable attention, collection, disposal processing, and treatment have solution which are seen to be abortive. This problem which is prevalent in the country is not peculiar to the third world alone but cuts across the industrialized countries of the world where the pollutant effect of domestic and industrial wastes have caused considerable concern to environmental scientists. Our problems emanate from solid waste essentially. There are wastes from discarded materials generated from domestic and community activities or from industrial, commercial and agricultural operations.
Unlike other forms of waste, Solid wastes are very difficult to handle due to their space-occupying properties. The management of solid waste has posed a serious challenge to the evolvement of many developing nations across the globe.
Other factors such as socio economy, education status, commercial activities embarked upon have equally added, in no small measures, to the rate and quantity at which solid waste is generated by the citizens. (Agunwamba, 1998; 2003; Babayemi and Dauda, 2009; Olukanni and Akinyinka, 2012).
Nigerian cities which is among the rapidly urbanizing cities in the world is also encountering solid waste generation and collection problem. (Onibokun and Kumuyi, 1996).
These disparities in growth versus waste generation pose a significant problem when a rapidly growing country cannot effectively and efficiently manage its waste. Nigerian cities generate solid waste at an alarming rate that, in most cases, the volume of waste generated is often more than what the city system could absorb (Ademiluyi and Solanke, 2004). In most of these cities, waste management issues have become an obvious issue and challenge. (Olanrewaju & Ilemobade, 2009).
It is worthy to then note that a dirty environment affects the standard of living, aesthetic values, health of the people and hence the quality of lives of the people ( Mowoe K.M, 1990). The implication of indiscriminate waste disposal and dumping is of hazardous effect, manifesting in form of soil, water and air pollution.
Of the different categories of wastes being generated, solid wastes had posed a multi faceted social problem which is out-weighing the carrying capacity of various solid waste management systems in Nigeria (Geoffrey, 2005). The situations in the streets are characterized by continual presence of solid waste from commercial and domestic activities.
Various researchers have undertaken to study solid waste generation, collection and disposal pattern in Nigeria, but most of the studies are usually a case study of a particular state or locality in Nigeria; and it seems the awareness about solid waste generation in several other cities are obscured.
Despite the present concern of individual and the government about waste management in Nigeria, most states in the southwestern part of the country are still faced with serious domestic waste management problem. From observation many waste generated from cooking and human activities were found disposed in undesignated places like gutters and on the streets and even when it is been packed and taken to the dumping site by the waste managers, it is not properly managed. They were left in pile for weeks and later set on fire which in turns generates toxic gases that could be dangerous to the inhabitants of the locality and to the environment itself.
Within the scope of this review, emphasis would be directed at municipal solid waste management, issues and challenges in the south west Nigeria. The South West is definitely no exception to this glaring waste challenges. This region has six states which includes: Ekiti, Lagos, Ogun, Ondo, Osun and Oyo. It is predominantly a Yoruba speaking region with diverse dialects even within the same state.
Practices and procedures of domestic waste management carried out in all of the six states in the southwest will be critically examined. Problems encountered in all of the states, in the course of management of the waste will also be discussed. Efforts made by each state Government so far to curb the menace imposed by waste management still needs to be intensified.
The Management of household waste is a function of the socio cultural practices and the perception of the immediate community which is usually heterogeneous. Benneh et al. observed that majority of solid waste stream generated in urban areas are usually dominated by domestic residential waste. These wastes are discovered to be characterized by 70% to 90% of organic component with high density and high moisture content, and about 5% to 10% of tins, cans and paper of the total waste stream.
Education has a significant role to play in waste management; therefore it needs to be priotized in achieving a sustainable waste management strategy. Some of the educational learned response sets and concerns include cultural derivatives, beliefs, perception and attitudes which can be restructured through education. ( Agboola ,1993).
Formal education for woman is pre-requisite for change in sanitation behavior, Pacey,1990. Abankwa (yr) found that households of high income and single dwelling units generate an average dry refuse of three kilograms per day, while the low income and compound dwelling units generate about five kilograms. Of the five kilograms of refuse in low income units, garbage constitute four point two five (4.25) kilograms and rubbish constitutes zero point five (0.5) kilograms. The waste in variably consist of item like vegetables and tuber remains. This high generation of waste tells us how source reduction as a waste management method is important.
The common constraints faced by Environmental Agencies include lack of institutional arrangement, insufficient financial resources, absence of bylaws and standards, inflexible work schedules, insufficient information on quantity and composition of waste, and inappropriate technology. The study suggested integration of institutional, political, social, financial, economic and technical aspects of municipal solid waste management in order to achieve sustainable and effective solid waste management in Nigeria. (references). Domestic waste
In Nigeria, the menace of solid waste is causing more concern mainly because of the technical, financial, institutional, economic and social constraints that are associated with its management. The Nigerian environment and the intensive degradation and pollution it has been subjected to, by human activities and negligence, demand urgent and effective management (Franca, 2002). Domestic waste