IMPACT OF DIVORCE ON ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF SENIOR SECONDARY STUDENTS IN ILORIN METROPOLIS, KWARA STATE

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Cover Page – – – – – – – – – –
Title Page – – – – – – – – – –
Certification – – – – – – – – – –
Dedication – – – – – – – – – –
Acknowledgement – – – – – – – – –
Abstract – – – – – – – – – –
Table of Content – – – – – – – – –
Chapter One: Introduction
Background of the Study – – – – – –
Statement of the Problem – – – – – –
Objectives of the Study – – – – – – –
Research Questions – – – – – – –
Research Hypotheses – – – – – – –
Significance of the Study – – – – – – –
Scope/ Limitation of the Study – – – – – –
Definition of Terms – – – – – – –
Chapter Two: Review of Related Literature
2.1 Introduction – – – – – – – – –
2.2 Conceptual Framework – – – – – – –
2.3 Theoretical Framework – – – – – – –
2.4 Empirical Review – – – – – – – –

Chapter Three: Research Methodology
3.1 Introduction – – – – – – – –
3.1 Research Design – – – – – – – –
3.3 Area of the Study – – – – – – – –
3.4 Population of the Study – – – – – – –
3.5 Sample Size and Sampling Techniques – – – –
3.6 Instrumentation – – – – – – – –
3.7 Validation of the Instrument – – – – – –
3.8 Administration of the Instrument – – – – –
3.9 Method of Data Analysis – – – – – – –

Chapter Four: Presentation, Analysis and Interpretation of Data
4.1 Introduction – – – – – – – – –
4.2 Presentation and Analysis of Data – – – – –
4.3 Testing of Hypotheses – – – – – – –
4.4 Discussion of Findings – – – – – – –
Chapter Five: Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations
5.1 Introduction – – – – – – – – –
5.2 Summary – – – – – – – – –
5.3 Conclusion – – – – – – – – –
INTRODUCTION
Divorce is legal dissolution of marriage bond. Once the couple decides to divorce, they are free to remarry again. In Nigeria, there has been the increase in the rate of divorce. There are two factors influencing the rising divorce rates in the Nigeria. The first factor is both men and women are relying less on one another for economic survival. As women gain status in their work place or on their businesses, they often want to stand on their own and prefer to control their lives’ affair which enabling them to be less dependent on their husbands, the heads of household. Women who are gainfully employed and self-sufficient may be more willing to dissolve a marriage because they are not perceived as a financially dependent spouse. Financial stability allows for the female head of household to have more flexibility to exit a broken marriage. Secondly, when both male and female parents gain political status in the society, one seems to be superior over the over due to political gain. They seem not have chance to look after the family, especially the female ones which more likelihood be the victims of divorce According to Hargreaves (1991), student's resilience in a one-parent household is believed to be a significant indication of success in other areas of their lives, including academics. Similar to a domino effect, students under emotional heartache and stress at home often have emotions that interfere with concentration during the school day. Poor school performance often agitates the parent and the dominos continue to fall as the student loses selfconfidence and experiences decreased performance in school. Students may have a difficult time concentrating on school work from divorce-related stress occurring at home. Students may face unique challenges of completing homework assignments when organizing their homework, backpack, and paperwork between multiple homes. According to Smith (1999), some students are flexible and adapt well to change largely due to implementing effective coping strategies, while other students may react in the opposite way. Students may lose confidence, blame themselves for the break-up, and see their parent's separation or divorce in a complicated way. The range of feelings that a student may encounter include: disbelief and denial, sadness, loss, loneliness,
depression, anger, anxiety, fear, relief, and hope. Response to these feelings often results in different levels of
intensity (Smith, 1999). While some students may experience mild anxiety and sadness, others may feel more intense emotions. Smith (1999) also found that students’ reaction to their parent's divorce varies based on the student's age. Carlson and Hines (cited in Dykeman, 2003) determined that parents can help make a smooth transition for their children during a divorce. Parents can present a reliable and cooperative parenting style when providing their children with discipline and behaviour expectations. Putting the child in the middle and asking them to "spy" on the other parent or report back information regarding dating, finances, and life styles may hurt the
student trying to cope with life in two different residences. Students tend to be more resilient when their parents offer strategies such as joint-parenting, similar discipline styles and not competing for child-loyalty with gifts and presents. Hargreaves (1991) documented behavioural issues and emotional problems exhibited by students proceeding their parents' separation or divorce. Parents may also have different expectations and rules for their child presenting inconsistencies which may confuse the child. Research suggests that a child's adaption to successful transition depends on each parent maintaining a healthy relationship between one another and with the child (Hargreaves, 1991). Wilkinson (cited in Hargreaves, 1991) reported children's stressors throughout divorce
may include disorganized daily routines, change in parenting style, reduced family income, parental conflict,
limited resources, and parental accessibility. Families can usually maintain and adapt to the short-term changes
of divorce in a two- to three-year span.

According to Hertherington et al. (cited in Hargreaves, 1991), students display problems during a variety of stages of family deterioration including times during this alteration period, either before parental separation, or directly subsequent to a parental separation. Students will sometimes experience delayed stress responses occurring years after a divorce in a form of post-traumatic stress (Hargreaves, 1991).
One-third of school age students in Ilorin metropolis experience changes in family dynamics that show up in the school setting. Indicators such as depression, decline in academic achievement, poor attendance, loss of confidence, and disorganization may signal adjustment issues pertaining to divorce in a student's home. School counsellors are key players in helping children with personal issues, social needs, and academic success. Knowing human developmental stages, emotional needs during separation and divorce, and strategies to support
children who are dealing with feelings pertaining to divorce are critical to the role of school counsellors. The problem therefore becomes this: how can school counsellors recognize warning signs for children struggling with divorcing parents and help children whose parents are going through separation and divorce?
Various theories of child development suggest that children younger than age five or six are particularly vulnerable to the effects of parental separation. The disruption of attachment relations, combined with the child’s limited cognitive abilities to understand divorce, is central to this vulnerability. But analysing studies that assess students of different ages at a single point in time confounds children’s age at the time of divorce with the amount of time elapsed since the divorce, both of which could account for the results. children showed greater
adjustment with increasing age (e.g., birth to age five, age six to ten, age eleven to sixteen), with the youngest age group being the most severely affected by divorce. Importantly, however, age differences were statistically significant on only one of the nineteen measures used. In sum, robust age-at-separation effects, such as gender effects, have not been empirically demonstrated. Clinical observations, however, show those students’ concerns resulting from parental separation and how they express their concerns do vary with age.
Objectives of the Study.
1. To determine the impact of divorce on academic performance of students
2. To find the age difference in students of divorce.
3. To determine the gender difference in students of divorce.
Research Design.
This study adopted a survey method of research that is, aimed at collecting data for the purpose of interesting
and knowing the effects of divorce on the academic performance of secondary school students.  divorce

Originally posted 2016-11-14 11:51:59.