CREDIBILITY OF NIGERIA BROADCAST MEDIA(A CASE STUDY OF NTA ENUGU)
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This will be research credibility of Nigeria take a look at credibility of Nigeria Broadcast media with special emphasis on NTA Enugu in Enugu State. This study is attempts of evaluate the position of Nigeria towards the Nigeria Television Authority (NTA) its is intended to prove empirical data on NTA, and how media play a vital role in the life of people. Reviews of related literature clearly examine in great detail the factors surrounding the credibility of broadcast media. Several data gathering techniques were employed. These included a survey of opinion of television viewer’s questionnaire and direct personal observation. The finding indicates that broadcast organizations and its programmed use to be trust and accepted to the people for their truth objectivity and elimination of boas they met. It also indicates that although Nigerians accepts other media as an organs of information dissemination, people in Uwani prefer and rely more on NTA television network for reliable and dependable news. Based on these finding, this study recommends broadcasting objectives which other media will follow to redeem its image enhance acceptability.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.2 Background of the study
1.3 Statement of the problems
1.4 Objectives of the study
1.5 Research Questions
1.7 Theoretical Framework
1.8 Significance of the study
1.9 Scope and Limitation of the study
1.10 Definitions of Terms
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Place of Broadcast in Society
2.2 Effect of Broadcast
2.3 Criticism of Broadcasting
2.4 Autonomy of Broadcasting
2.5 Performance in Terms of Quantity
2.6 Performance in Terms of Quality
3.0 Research Design and Methodology
3.1 Area of Study
3.2 Data Gathering Techniques
3.3 Population of the study
3.4 Sample size and Sample Techniques
3.5 Scale of Measurement
3.6 Reliability of the Instrument
4.0 PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OD DATA
4.2 Questionnaire Distribution
5.0 SUMMARY, RECOMMENDATION AND CONLUSION
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
For the purpose of this study, the researches considered UWANI metropolis, Enugu, because of its strategies location.
Television newer ship has fallen off in recent years, credibility ratings for the major TV news outlets have remained relatively stable. As was case in 1998 and 1996, NTA is related the most credibility TV news source. Roughly four in ten people in Uwani who are able to rate it (39%) say they can believe all or most of what they see and hear on NTA.
Since the mid-1980’s, Nigeria have become increasingly skeptical of what they see, hear and read in the media and almost no major news outlet has escaped this trend. For many media outlets there has been little change in public evaluations in the last four years but ratings for some continue to inch downward.
Different studies in different countries have found that developing countries need the media for evolution of new psychological personality, learners study of the middle East, pools study of the media, Rogers diffusion of innovation, all bear clear and eloquent testimony to the crucial role of the mass media to national development.
Leading credence to this assertion, Wilbur Schramm in his graphic message concludes “Communication is always at the very center of existence, for any society, developing or not that countries in a hurry cannot afford the luxury of an inert mass”.
Defleur Dennis on his part, observes, “Traditional societies with limited mass communication tend to develop slowly but when mass media are introduced, changes take place. This is because the society has grown all the more complex and this has made direct simple communication alone less relevant.
The way media performs its functions would go to support or undermine the claim that they are contributing to national development. This point is well made by Wilson P. Dizard when he observes that television in some countries has proven a mere boondoggle.
Joseph R. Dominick observes that if a reader or viewer looses trust or stops believing what is being reported, the fundamental contract between audience and reporters is undermined and news organisation cannot survive.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE RESEARCH PROBLEMS
The main problem of this study is to investigate if NTA Enugu has a source of credible News broadcasting media.
The problem of transmitting over a short range and serving densely populated areas with effective broadcasting equipments, e.g. transmitters, antennas, shelters, generators, etc. NTA Enugu has suffered credibility decline in recent years as a local news station mainly by habitants of Uwani.
As a consequence, there is far less variance in public views of the credibility of major news organizations than in the late 1990s. Some of the sources that were viewed as the most credible than have seen there numbers fall.
Substantially, and today no news organization stands out from the crowd as a significantly more reliable source of information.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
When some one has a clear vision for his mission, accomplishment becomes easier. Based on the problems highlighted above, the objectives of this study is:
- To find out the attitude of the Nigerian through people living in Uwani towards television against other media (broadcast and print).
- To find out the types of programmed that appeal to them most.
- To establish the level of authenticity and credibility of NTA programmed content vis-à-vis their foreign counterparts.
- To find out measures that can be adopted to bridge the gap between foreign and local media as well as reverse the trend of dependence on foreign media.
- To find out whether Nigeria public agenda the kind of things people discuss, think, and worry about (and sometimes ultimately press for legislation about) is powerfully shaped and directed by what these foreign media choose to publish about Nigeria.
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study is important in many ways. The mass media influences and touches the lives of the populace by what they publish or broadcast. As the same time whatever they publish or broadcast should reflect the socio-economic and political attributes of the people in their society. This study will offer us the opportunity to know that Nigerian Television Authority is living up to its duties in the area of the provision of true and factual information.
The nature of the people perception of the Nigerian Television Authority (NTA) will determine whether it is held in a high esteem or whether it has a poor image. As the NTA has a good image, it means that the people are well disposed towards it and depend on credible source of information.
The outcome of this study will reveal the full consequences of station image and so enable our policy-makers and media planners to improve on their services in the interest of the nation. Olaleye Theophilus etal observes that “One of the major preoccupations of the policy-makers in a developing country like Nigeria is how to use mass media to create awareness in the people and to mobilize them to contribute positively towards national development and objectives.
This study is important because Nigeria is a developing nation. Hence Wilbur Schramm observes “the need for information sharing is especially urgent in the new nations in which the task assigned to the communication media are vastly greater than before the time of the development”.
According to Onuore E Nwuneli; “Communication research is still at its infancy in Nigeria and Africa as a whole. Tremendous gaps still exit in the meager baseline data already collected on broadcasting in the country”.
Therefore this study will extend the frontiers of mass communication research by serving as a stepping a stone to further research work on audience-media attitudes and behavior.
The result of this will help NTA management to undertake a constructive re-appraisal of its activities, more so having been recently commercialized.
1.5 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
- How can we find out the attitude of Nigerians through the people living in Uwani towards televisions against other media (broad-cast and print)?
- How can we find out the type of the programmed that appeal to them most?
- How can we establish the level of authenticity and credibility of NTA programmes content vis-à-vis mostly their foreign counterparts?
- How can we findout measure that can be adopted to bridge the gap between foreign and local media as well as recover the trend of dependent on foreign media?
- How can we find out whether Nigerian public agenda about the kind of things people discuss, think, and worry about (an some times ultimately press for legislation about) is powerfully shaped and directed what these foreign media choose to published about Nigeria?
H0: Reasonable measure should be adopted to bridge the gap between foreign and local media.
H1: Reasonable measure should not be adopted to bridge the gap between foreign and local media.
H0: To establish the level of authenticity and credibility of NTA programs content, vis-à-vis their foreign counterpart.
H1: Not to establish the level of authenticity and credibility of NTA programs content, vis-à-vis their foreign counterpart.
H0: To attitude of the Nigeria through people living in Uwani towards television against other media (broadcast and print).
H1: The attitude of the Nigeria through people living in Uwani towards television against other media (broadcast and print).
H0: The objectives of the above, how to it can be solve.
H1: The objectives of the above, how to it cannot be solve.
1.7 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORKS
The theory that reflects of al credibility of Nigerian broadcast media. The people whom the broadcast programmes are meant for are of a very paramount consideration in the entire broadcast activities. This is why NTA broadcast media takes great pain to under study these different strata of individuals to understand and know exactly how to deal with them in the most optimal range.
Go this, Ngene (2010:27), opines that it is necessary for the ‘guaging of the feelings of those exposed to a particular message, news information, etc.
Based on their comments by the piece” to this effects, the broadcasting media (NTA0 Enugu do not take for grated the position and nature of this study important aspect of her very existence.
Emphasizing at the important of the audience to the broadcast media would be an understatement because in the audience lies the prospect and continuity of the broadcast media. This has already been hinted in this treatis regarding the triangular existence of the audience, the broadcast media and the advertiser.
For this reason, the issue of audience research comes into the foreground it is important to point out that several other forms of research follow the practice of broadcasting like programmes research, as well as production research.
The essence of research is to devise new and better ways of doing what used to be done hence the audience research, programmes research, and production research was intended for devising new and better ways of reaching and satisfying the audience.
New and better ways of producing the broadcast programmes for quicker and more efficient realization of broadcast programmes objectives, and lastly, new an better ways of planning the broadcast programmes in the face of the stiff competition in the competitive broadcast market.
This is obtainable in that there is no media organization that can claim monopoly of the audience in the society where she operates.
The Nigeria Television Authority (NTA) and the Federal Radio Corporation of Nigeria (FRCN) would have claimed such monopoly save the revolution that hit the country in 1994. The year 1994 market the entrance of the first private broadcasting station in Nigeria.
Since that year, the flood gates, of private broadcasting was thrown open admitting several practitioners that today, Nigeria presently broadcast according to the count retrieved from Okoye (2009:209) of over 14 percent broadcasting stations.
The extent of the competition between these broadcast stations continues to intensify because what the programmes function of these stations was aiming at is the audience based of the other stations.
Each station is the interest in the augmentation of her audience based at the detriment of the others hence the improvement of her services to the society to ensure that this audience hunt is successful.
Of course it is obvious that the program is the best use to lure the audience into the nest of each broadest stations audience based.
1.8 DEFINITIONS OF TERMS
The following terms used in this study should be taken to mean the following:
- Broadcasting: It is the wireless transmission of information, messages and intelligence. Generally, broadcasting which is referred to as radio, television cable and satellite transmission through space by means of radio frequencies signals capable of being received orally or visually or both by the general public.
- Mass Media: The mass media are the organs of information and communication in the modern society. They form the crux of the institutions through which messages, knowledge and influences are transmitted to people within a specified place. They are the medium through which information, messages, ideas and attitudes are transmitted to a wide and heterogeneous audience simultaneously.
- Credibility: Credibility is a set of perceptions about a source or sources held by receivers or audience.
- Society: Society refers to a nation, a state composed of individuals in various cultural, political, social and religious group, associations or organizations. It equally includes the existing major institutions like education, business, economy, science and technology etc.