CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the Study
In a newspaper organization, there are various factors that determine the successful operation of the sales and distribution channels. Accordingly, even minor issues in these operations can adversely affect the newspaper. A customer may choose a newspaper for various reasons. However, it’s up to the newspaper agencies to communicate to the customer that their newspaper can deliver all the values a customer may look for. The reach and popularity of a newspaper to a large extent depends on its distribution network. Here we have carried out an analysis on the delivery and sales management of the Newspaper in order to better understand their channel and also identify and provide possible solutions to any shortcomings Plambeck, J. (April 26, 2010).

Newspapers have unique characteristics, in that they are delivered to approximately 54,000 (ADVAN 2006) retail outlets nationwide everyday, the content changes substantially from day-to-day and the demand for them will have all but expired by lunchtime on the day of sale. Although some other products might share one or two of these characteristics, their combination in newspapers means that the process of getting this product from supplier to consumer is substantially different from others in the economy. As a result, newspapers have a distribution system that is largely dedicated to that one product. This project aim is to provide a basic factual presentation of the role of Newspaper vendors on Newspaper Distribution process identifies the main characteristics of the supply chains for newspapers and magazines in Nigeria.
This paper is intended to give a high-level overview as to how the Nigeria Distribution chains for newspapers and magazines is being managed at the different levels of the supply chains. In so doing, the paper aims to set out some basic, relevant background information which it is hoped will aid readers’ understanding of the role of Newspaper vendors in the distribution of Newspaper is being distributed to different part of the country.

1.2 Statement of the Problem
The problems that lead to the study of this project arises form the issue of nature newspaper supply chains as compared to other products at all levels of the supply chains (publishing, wholesaling and retailing) and in the nature of the interactions between these levels.
Unlike supply chains for many other products, which are retailer-driven, the newspaper and magazine supply chains are publisher-led. In particular, publishers appear to exercise a strong degree of influence over pricing at all stages of the supply chains by printing a price on the cover (cover prices) and setting, or recommending, the margins earned by Newspaper vendors.

1.3 Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this study is to investigate the challenges of newspaper management in Rivers State. The objectives of this study includes:
i. To examine the challenges of newspaper management in Rivers State.
ii. To examine the differences in the managerial challenges of The Tide and Independent Monitor newspapers.
iii. To identify the solutions to some of challenges faced by newspaper management in Rivers State.

1.4 Research Questions
i. What are the challenges of newspaper management in Rivers State?
ii. Are there any differences in the challenges faced by the newspaper managements of the tide and The Independent Monitor?
iii. What are the solutions to the challenges faced by newspaper management in Rivers State?

1.5 Research Hypotheses
Ho: There is no significant difference between the challenges faced by newspaper management of The Tide and Independent Monitor.
HA: There is significant difference between the challenges faced by newspaper management of The Tide and Independent Monitor.

1.6 Significance of the Study
The research is carried out to know the problems that newspaper management in Rivers State encounter during the production of newspapers and how the problem could be solved. This research study will be beaming light on these challenges to educate the general public and the management of other newspaper companies in Nigeria on the identified challenges faced by the operation of newspaper companies and how these companies can go about it to prevent liquidation.

This study will also compare the challenges faced by different companies looking carefully at how environmental factor and other factors can contribute to the challenges faced by newspaper management and how it varies from one company to another
Lastly, the outcome of this study will increase the volume of the literature in the area of challenges of newspaper management and possible solution.

1.7 Scope of the Study
This study is specifically delimited to investigating Challenges of Newspapers Management in Rivers State and the strategies for providing Tide and Independent Monitor.

1.8 Limitations of the Study
Limitations experienced in the course of this study are basically centered on problems relating to: Difficulty in generating reasonable, adequate and reliable information from respondents- Respondents tend to provide information which they feel the researcher would be pleased to get, which may not be the right information. Financial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
Time constraint- The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.

1.8 Definition of Terms
Management – the process of dealing with or controlling things or people
Challenges – problems faced by someone
Publications- the preparation and issuing of a book, journal, or piece of music for public sale
Advertising – the activity or profession of producing advertisements for commercial products or services.
Organization – an organized group of people with a particular purpose, such as a business or government department
Newspaper – a printed publication (usually issued daily or weekly) consisting of folded unstapled sheets and containing news, articles, advertisements, and correspondence
Newsprint – cheap, low-quality absorbent printing paper made from coarse wood pulp and used chiefly for newspapers.



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