ANTI-SPASMODIC EFFECT OF CRUDE AQUEOUS PLANTAIN EXTRACT (MUSA PARADISIACA) ON THE ISOLATED GUINEA PIG ILEUM
TABLE OF CONTENT
Chapter one: Introduction
Chapter two: materials and methods
Chapter three: Results
Chapter four: Discussion and conclusion
Tables and figures
Plantain (musa paradisiaca) is a stapele food of a large proportion of people of the Delta regions of west Africa. The unripe plantain fruit is used locally for amelioration of diarrhoea (Dalzieel 1936). Previous work has shown antispasmodic activity of the unripe extract (Dede 1986). This project therefore is aimed at studying the antispasmodic effect and the nature of the antagonism exhibited by the unripe plantain extract.
Dose response curve to acetyl choline was obtained ranging from 2 x 10-9m to 4 x 10-3m solution. 25 nglml of atropine in the reservoir antagonise the effect of acetylcholione competitively. Antispasmodic effect of 20 nglml of adrenaline on acetyl choline responses was unsurmountable increasing the concentration of acetylcholine from 2 x 10-9m to 10-3m.
With the aqueous extract of musa paradisiaca, the antispasmodic effect was unsurmountable. Hence the inhibition produced in conclusion was non-competitive type.
Thin layer chromatography of aqueous extract of musa paradisiaca gave 3 bands.
Plantain (musa paradisciaca) is a staple food of the people of Delta tribes in the southern part of Nigeria, Ghana, Ivory Coast, (Dalziel 1936).
It belongs to a botanical family of plants called musa cae in the ofdr Zingiberale’s with two general Ensete and musa with aobut 100 species. This classification was given by Hutchinson (1959) and Simmonds (1962). The Hutchison’s classification of the order consist of six families which musacae is one of the tropical an subtropical perennial plants (Simmonds 1962). There are about one thousand and four hundred species of which musa paradisiacais among. All edible banana and plantain are said to be derived from a hybrid for musa acuminate and musa balbisiana.
Ecologically, they are plants of tropical humid low lands and are mostly grown between 300 north and south of the equator. Mean monthly temperature of 27oc is optimal and at higher temperature of 21oc or less, results on a check in growth of musa paradisiaca. Time of shooting is 7 – 9 months in the tropical low lands but this may extend to 18 months at 1000 metre or subtropical. They require high water demand and average annual rain fall of 200 – 2500mm, well distributed is satisfactory for growth. The plant is also grown in area with fairly pronounced dry season like Uganda (perseglvoe 1979).
About 100 grams for unripe plantain of similar weight will supply about 377.32 calories (oke 1972). Not much is known about the amino acid content of the unripe and ripe plantain pulp, this is due to difficulty in amino acid extraction and identification (Oke
1972). Plantain is a rich source of calcium, phosphorus, iron and other trace elements, Ascobic acid, Thiamine, Ribofalvin and Niacin (Oyenuga 1978).
PERCENTAGE NUTIENT COMPOSITION OF PLANTAIN
|Nutrient||Composition unripe (%)||Composition ripe (%)|
PERCENTAGE (%) COMPOSITION OF CARBOHYDRATE IN PLANTAIN
|VITAMINS||CONC/ 100G OF PLANTAIN|
PHAMACOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL ACTIVE INGREDIENT IN PLANTAIN:
THE PRESENCE OF PHENOLIC AMINES IN Bananas have been reported, (Simonds 19666). The most abundant is 3, 4 dihydroxyphenylethyl amine (Dopamine) which is said to be abundant in the skin of the plantain and banana fruit reaching about 700 p.p.m. (parts per et al 1958).`
Urinary excretion pattern of monkey fed with bananas were found to contain 5 – hydroxyl-indole-acetic acid, (Simmonds 1966). Other substances more potent than Dopamine were discovered (Anderson et al 1958). They are shown in the table below with their various concentration.
ACTIVE SUBSTANCES IN BANANA PULM AND SKIN (IN P.P.M.):
|Active substance||Composition||Skin (P.P.M)|
Not much have been reported about changes in the levels of these pharmacologically active substances at ripening, but 5-hydroxytrotamine seems fairly constant in the pulp of the fruit and increases in the skin at ripeness (Simmonds 1966). The following pathway was given by Simmonds as the biosynthetic sequence of phenolic amines:
Tyramine Hydrolyse Hydrolyse
5 – hydroxytryptamine is the most active physiological material present in the banana pulp which inhibit gastric acid secretion and stimulate smooth muscle in the intestine (Simmonds 1966; Smith et al 1960). Simmonds pointed out the usefulness of this in combating coeliac disease. 5 – hydroxytryptamine is presumed to come from Tryptophan and it is excreted as- hydroxyl – indole-acetic acid by mammals after eating plantain (Simmonds 1966).
The astringent property of unripe plantain and the active ’Tannin level in unripe plantain were attributed to the phenolic substances present in the unripe plantain (Goldstein et al, 1963). Tannins have been implicated in the formation of astringent substances due to their ability to form complex and precipitate protein substances in the buccal cavity as well as in the intestinal mucosa. This astringency is termed mouth and intestinal ‘’gripping’’ respectively. Tannin astringent property inhibit saliva in the mouth, gastric secretion in the stomach.
In the unripe plantain the bulk of tannins is leucoanthocyamidin which is present as a monomeric falvo 3.4 diol or as oligomers and is believed to condense to inactive high tannin polymers at ripening. Polumerization leads to decreased solubility of high molecule tannins in methanolic solvent (Gold stein et al 1963).
Probable site of polymerization to give an inactive condensed tannins as seen in unripe plantain (Simmonds, 19666).
Leucodelphinidin has been identified in banana fruit using a chromatographic test (Simmonds, 1954). He showed that the substances were almost present in all parts of the fruit and even the banana flowers. Other active substances such as alkylated ‘’Leucophenlargonidin’’ was identified in the seeds of wild Musa acuminate and Indian Species (Chada et al, 1962; Simmonds, 1966). The structure of banana leuco-substances have not been elucidated but it is presumed to be of falvin type (Simmonds 1966).
There is a high Histidine level in the developing fruit pulp, but this fall as the banana fruit matures, fruit pulp, but this fall as the banana fruit matures, m (Huline 1955; Simmonds, 1966).
Other phenolic substances such as Eugenol and Elemicin which are quite volatile, with low boiling points are present in banana fruit.
Many studies have shown the presence of cathechol groups in plantain peel and the presence of banning level in unripe banana fruit as compared to the ripe banana.
Phytin which is the calcium and magnesium salt of plantain, (Bagoosan 1993). Phytic acid itself has been shown to interface with the absorption of calcium either by precipitation of calcium or by converting it to a form which is to a form which is to a form which is not readily absorbed phytric acid as the hexosphoric ester of inositol. Inositol is a basic sugar alcohol called myonositol (phytic acid ) in the extra cellular compartment of higher plant tissue.
Joan et al (1982) reported that large amount of phytate (salt of phytic acid) could render calcaium in the interstine insoluble. Due to one factor or the other in the smooth muscle, lack of extrcellular calcium on intracellular blockade of calcium release, lead to muscle relaxation or incontractility of such smooth muscle. Lack of calcium leave the actin-myosin fibres in the in-active state hence smootjh muscle cannot contract (Hurwitz et al 1971).
ECONOMIC AND MEDICINAL USES OF PLANTAIN
Musa paradiscaca has a lot of economical and medical use. These uses are peculiar to localities where they are found economically in most countries of West Africa such as Dahomy, Ghana and Delta tribes of Nigeria. The unripe plantain fruits are peeled, wrapped in it leaves and steamed. It is also eaten pounded into a thick mush (soft, thick mixture) and can be boiled, baked in ashes, fried in oil and cut up and dired in the sun or smoked for use when required. In some parts of west Equatorial Africa a sort of bean made from plantain. Spirit have also been distilled from it. The fibres are sued for fishing and that from plantain are usually stronger and whiter than that from bananas.
Cut pieces of the fruit-peduncle can serve as stoppers, used for flint-lock guns and when thoroughly dried, also as wads. In Gold Coast they are used as sponges on the flood of native houses. The sap from the stem can stain linen indelibly. It is also used as an astringent sap from the root contain tannin (Buignet 1861). In West Africa, when the skin of the fruit is dried in the sun and burned, provides ash rich in caustic potash for local soap making and even for mixing with tobacco snuff.
In India, the sap of the stem is of medicinal use in nervous conditions like hysteria and epilepsy. The unripe fruit, combined with other plants can be used in diabetes (B. Oliver 1960).
In Ghana, the roots are pounded and prepared as an enema (an injection of fluid into the rectum for cleansing, heating, sedative, diagnostic or nutritive purpose). They young leaves softened heating kames a good dressing for wounds. The ash of burned stem, leaf or fruit-skin is used as dusting powder for treatment of ulcers.
In Gambia, the sap of the inflorescence is used for ear ache. In French Guinea, the flowers are regarded as having emernagogue properties (promotion of menstruation). In Gabon, the scraping of the peduncle stop bleedings from cuts; the young terminal leaves, while still-rolled are moistened with palm oil and applied as a dressing for burns or used like silk; the ashes of the skins are used as a dressing after scarification (production in the skin of many small superficial scratches or punctures, as for introduction of vaccines). A remedy for crashed lips is to cut up the bracts and sterile flowers and cook them with mellon seeds. The core of the stem is used to clean up ulcers.
The fact that unripe plantain (pulp) have been used in certain localities of the Niger Delta for the amelioration of diarrhoea generated interest in studying the antispasmodic effect of musa paradisiaca, (Dede et al 1986).
This project therefore is aimed at further looking at the effect of aqueous extract of musa paradisiaca on isolated quinea pig ileum.
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